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Mateus S from Brasil

Friday, 15-09-17 19:04

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anjani domino from anjani

Friday, 15-09-17 16:51

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diana elias from Brasil

Friday, 15-09-17 00:51

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Friday, 15-09-17 00:47

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Friday, 15-09-17 00:38

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Thursday, 14-09-17 18:20

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Thursday, 14-09-17 13:11

Cold War and civil rights era
Main articles: History of the United States (1945–64), History of the United States (1964–80), and History of the United States (1980–91)
Further information: Cold War, Civil Rights Movement, War on Poverty, Space Race, and Reaganomics

U.S. President Ronald Reagan at his "Tear down this wall!" speech in Berlin, Germany on June 12, 1987.[168]
After World War II the United States and the Soviet Union jockeyed for power during what became known as the Cold War, driven by an ideological divide between capitalism and communism[169] and, according to the school of geopolitics, a divide between the maritime Atlantic and the continental Eurasian camps. They dominated the military affairs of Europe, with the U.S. and its NATO allies on one side and the USSR and its Warsaw Pact allies on the other. The U.S. developed a policy of containment towards the expansion of communist influence. While the U.S. and Soviet Union engaged in proxy wars and developed powerful nuclear arsenals, the two countries avoided direct military conflict.

The United States often opposed Third World movements that it viewed as Soviet-sponsored. American troops fought communist Chinese and North Korean forces in the Korean War of 1950–53.[170] The Soviet Union's 1957 launch of the first artificial satellite and its 1961 launch of the first manned spaceflight initiated a "Space Race" in which the United States became the first nation to land a man on the moon in 1969.[170] A proxy war in Southeast Asia eventually evolved into full American participation, as the Vietnam War.

At home, the U.S. experienced sustained economic expansion and a rapid growth of its population and middle class. Construction of an Interstate Highway System transformed the nation's infrastructure over the following decades. Millions moved from farms and inner cities to large suburban housing developments.[171][172] In 1959 Hawaii became the 50th and last U.S. state added to the country.[173] The growing Civil Rights Movement used nonviolence to confront segregation and discrimination, with Martin Luther King Jr. becoming a prominent leader and figurehead. A combination of court decisions and legislation, culminating in the Civil Rights Act of 1968, sought to end racial discrimination.[174][175][176] Meanwhile, a counterculture movement grew which was fueled by opposition to the Vietnam war, black nationalism, and the sexual revolution.

The launch of a "War on Poverty" expanded entitlements and welfare spending, including the creation of Medicare and Medicaid, two programs that provide health coverage to the elderly and poor, respectively, and the means-tested Food Stamp Program and Aid to Families with Dependent Children.[177]

The 1970s and early 1980s saw the onset of stagflation. After his election in 1980, President Ronald Reagan responded to economic stagnation with free-market oriented reforms. Following the collapse of détente, he abandoned "containment" and initiated the more aggressive "rollback" strategy towards the USSR.[178][179][180][181][182] After a surge in female labor participation over the previous decade, by 1985 the majority of women aged 16 and over were employed.[183]

The late 1980s brought a "thaw" in relations with the USSR, and its collapse in 1991 finally ended the Cold War.[184][185][186][187] This brought about unipolarity[188] with the U.S. unchallenged as the world's dominant superpower. The concept of Pax Americana, which had appeared in the post-World War II period, gained wide popularity as a term for the post-Cold War new world order.

Contemporary history
Main articles: History of the United States (1991–2008) and History of the United States (2008–present)
Further information: Gulf War, September 11 attacks, War on Terror, 2008 financial crisis, and Affordable Care Act

The World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan during the September 11 attacks in 2001

One World Trade Center, newly-built in its place
After the Cold War, the conflict in the Middle East triggered a crisis in 1990, when Iraq under Sadaam Hussein invaded and attempted to annex Kuwait, an ally of the United States. Fearing that the instability would spread to other regions, President George H.W. Bush launched Operation Desert Shield, a defensive force buildup in Saudi Arabia, and Operation Desert Storm, in a staging titled the Gulf War; waged by coalition forces from 34 nations, led by the United States against Iraq ending in the successful expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait, restoring the former monarchy.[189]

Originating in U.S. defense networks, the Internet spread to international academic networks, and then to the public in the 1990s, greatly affecting the global economy, society, and culture.[190]

Due to the dot-com boom, stable monetary policy under Alan Greenspan, and reduced social welfare spending, the 1990s saw the longest economic expansion in modern U.S. history, ending in 2001.[191] Beginning in 1994, the U.S. entered into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), linking 450 million people producing $17 trillion worth of goods and services. The goal of the agreement was to eliminate trade and investment barriers among the U.S., Canada, and Mexico by January 1, 2008. Trade among the three partners has soared since NAFTA went into force.[192]

On September 11, 2001, Al-Qaeda terrorists struck the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon near Washington, D.C., killing nearly 3,000 people.[193] In response, the United States launched the War on Terror, which included war in Afghanistan and the 2003–11 Iraq War.[194][195] In 2007, the Bush administration ordered a major troop surge in the Iraq War,[196] which successfully reduced violence and led to greater stability in the region.[197][198]

Government policy designed to promote affordable housing,[199] widespread failures in corporate and regulatory governance,[200] and historically low interest rates set by the Federal Reserve[201] led to the mid-2000s housing bubble, which culminated with the 2008 financial crisis, the largest economic contraction in the nation's history since the Great Depression.[202] Barack Obama, the first African American[203] and multiracial[204] president, was elected in 2008 amid the crisis,[205] and subsequently passed stimulus measures and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act in an attempt to mitigate its negative effects and ensure there would not be a repeat of the crisis. The stimulus facilitated infrastructure improvements[206] and a relative decline in unemployment.[207] Dodd-Frank improved financial stability and consumer protection,[208] although there is evidence it may have had a negative impact on small banks.[209]

In 2010, the Obama administration passed the Affordable Care Act, which made the most sweeping reforms to the nation's healthcare system in nearly five decades, including mandates, subsidies and insurance exchanges. The law caused a significant reduction in the number and percentage of people without health insurance, with 24 million covered during 2016,[210] but remains controversial due to its impact on healthcare costs, insurance premiums, and economic performance.[211] Although the recession reached its trough in June 2009, voters remained frustrated with the slow pace of the economic recovery. The Republicans, who stood in opposition to Obama's policies, won control of the House of Representatives with a landslide in 2010 and control of the Senate in 2014.[212]

American forces in Iraq were withdrawn in large numbers in 2009 and 2010, and the war in the region was declared formally over in December 2011.[213] The withdrawal caused an escalation of sectarian insurgency,[214] leading to the rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, the successor of al-Qaeda in the region.[215] In 2014, Obama announced a restoration of full diplomatic relations with Cuba for the first time since 1961.[needs update][216] The next year, the United States as a member of the P5+1 countries signed the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement aimed to slow the development of Iran's nuclear program.[217]

Geography, climate, and environment
Main articles: Geography of the United States, Climate of the United States, and Environment of the United States

A composite satellite image of the contiguous United States and surrounding areas

Köppen climate classifications
The land area of the contiguous United States is 2,959,064 square miles (7,663,940.6 km2). Alaska, separated from the contiguous United States by Canada, is the largest state at 663,268 square miles (1,717,856.2 km2). Hawaii, occupying an archipelago in the central Pacific, southwest of North America, is 10,931 square miles (28,311 km2) in area. The populated territories of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, and U.S. Virgin Islands together cover 9,185 square miles (23,789 km2).[218] Measured by only land area, the United States is third in size behind Russia and China, just ahead of Canada.[219]

The United States is the world's third- or fourth-largest nation by total area (land and water), ranking behind Russia and Canada and just above or below China. The ranking varies depending on how two territories disputed by China and India are counted and how the total size of the United States is measured: calculations range from 3,676,486 square miles (9,522,055.0 km2)[220] to 3,717,813 square miles (9,629,091.5 km2)[221] to 3,796,742 square miles (9,833,516.6 km2).[222]

The coastal plain of the Atlantic seaboard gives way further inland to deciduous forests and the rolling hills of the Piedmont.[223] The Appalachian Mountains divide the eastern seaboard from the Great Lakes and the grasslands of the Midwest.[224] The Mississippi–Missouri River, the world's fourth longest river system, runs mainly north–south through the heart of the country. The flat, fertile prairie of the Great Plains stretches to the west, interrupted by a highland region in the southeast.[224]

The Rocky Mountains, at the western edge of the Great Plains, extend north to south across the country, reaching altitudes higher than 14,000 feet (4,300 m) in Colorado.[225] Farther west are the rocky Great Basin and deserts such as the Chihuahua and Mojave.[226] The Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountain ranges run close to the Pacific coast, both ranges reaching altitudes higher than 14,000 feet (4,300 m). The lowest and highest points in the contiguous United States are in the state of California,[227] and only about 84 miles (135 km) apart.[228] At an elevation of 20,310 feet (6,190.5 m), Alaska's Denali (Mount McKinley) is the highest peak in the country and North America.[229] Active volcanoes are common throughout Alaska's Alexander and Aleutian Islands, and Hawaii consists of volcanic islands. The supervolcano underlying Yellowstone National Park in the Rockies is the continent's largest volcanic feature.[230] The United States has the most ecoregions out of any country in the world.[231]

The United States, with its large size and geographic variety, includes most climate types. To the east of the 100th meridian, the climate ranges from humid continental in the north to humid subtropical in the south.[232] The Great Plains west of the 100th meridian are semi-arid. Much of the Western mountains have an alpine climate. The climate is arid in the Great Basin, desert in the Southwest, Mediterranean in coastal California, and oceanic in coastal Oregon and Washington and southern Alaska. Most of Alaska is subarctic or polar. Hawaii and the southern tip of Florida are tropical, as are the populated territories in the Caribbean and the Pacific.[233] Extreme weather is not uncommon—the states bordering the Gulf of Mexico are prone to hurricanes, and most of the world's tornadoes occur within the country, mainly in Tornado Alley areas in the Midwest and South.[234]

Wildlife
Main articles: Fauna of the United States and Flora of the United States
See also: Category:Biota of the United States

The bald eagle has been the national bird of the United States since 1782.[235]
The U.S. ecology is megadiverse: about 17,000 species of vascular plants occur in the contiguous United States and Alaska, and over 1,800 species of flowering plants are found in Hawaii, few of which occur on the mainland.[236] The United States is home to 428 mammal species, 784 bird species, 311 reptile species, and 295 amphibian species.[237] About 91,000 insect species have been described.[238] The bald eagle is both the national bird and national animal of the United States, and is an enduring symbol of the country itself.[239]

There are 59 national parks and hundreds of other federally managed parks, forests, and wilderness areas.[240] Altogether, the government owns about 28% of the country's land area.[241] Most of this is protected, though some is leased for oil and gas drilling, mining, logging, or cattle ranching; about .86% is used for military purposes.[242][243]

Environmental issues have been on the national agenda since 1970. Environmental controversies include debates on oil and nuclear energy, dealing with air and water pollution, the economic costs of protecting wildlife, logging and deforestation,[244][245] and international responses to global warming.[246][247] Many federal and state agencies are involved. The most prominent is the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), created by presidential order in 1970.[248] The idea of wilderness has shaped the management of public lands since 1964, with the Wilderness Act.[249] The Endangered Species Act of 1973 is intended to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, which are monitored by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.[250]

Demographics
Main articles: Demography of the United States, Americans, List of U.S. states by population density, and List of United States cities by population
Population
Historical population
Census Pop. %±
1790 3,929,214 —
1800 5,308,483 35.1%
1810 7,239,881 36.4%
1820 9,638,453 33.1%
1830 12,866,020 33.5%
1840 17,069,453 32.7%
1850 23,191,876 35.9%
1860 31,443,321 35.6%
1870 38,558,371 22.6%
1880 50,189,209 30.2%
1890 62,979,766 25.5%
1900 76,212,168 21.0%
1910 92,228,496 21.0%
1920 106,021,537 15.0%
1930 123,202,624 16.2%
1940 132,164,5[..] 2016[251] 323,127,513 4.7%
1610–1780 population data.[252]
Note that the census numbers do
not include Native Americans until 1860.[253]

 

Great Great from Great

Thursday, 14-09-17 13:10

Death of Captain Cook by Johann Zoffany (1795)
Captain James Cook's last voyage included sailing along the coast of North America and Alaska searching for a Northwest Passage for approximately nine months. He returned to the Hawaii to resupply, initially exploring the coasts of Maui and the big island, trading with locals and then making anchor at Kealakekua Bay in January 1779. When his ships and company left the islands, a ship's mast broke in bad weather, forcing them to return in mid-February. Cook would be killed days later.[99] [fn 9][fn 10]

Independence and expansion (1776–1865)
Further information: American Revolutionary War, United States Declaration of Independence, American Revolution, and Territorial evolution of the United States

Declaration of Independence by John Trumbull
The American Revolutionary War was the first successful colonial war of independence against a European power. Americans had developed an ideology of "republicanism" asserting that government rested on the will of the people as expressed in their local legislatures. They demanded their rights as Englishmen and "no taxation without representation". The British insisted on administering the empire through Parliament, and the conflict escalated into war.[112]

Following the passage of the Lee Resolution, on July 2, 1776, which was the actual vote for independence, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence on July 4, which proclaimed, in a long preamble, that humanity is created equal in their unalienable rights and that those rights were not being protected by Great Britain, and declared, in the words of the resolution, that the Thirteen Colonies were independent states and had no allegiance to the British crown in the United States. The fourth day of July is celebrated annually as Independence Day.[113] The Second Continental Congress declared on September 9 "where, heretofore, the words 'United Colonies' have been used, the stile be altered for the future to the 'United States' ".[114] In 1777, the Articles of Confederation established a weak government that operated until 1789.[113]

Britain recognized the independence of the United States following their defeat at Yorktown in 1781.[115] In the peace treaty of 1783, American sovereignty was recognized from the Atlantic coast west to the Mississippi River. Nationalists led the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in writing the United States Constitution, ratified in state conventions in 1788. The federal government was reorganized into three branches, on the principle of creating salutary checks and balances, in 1789. George Washington, who had led the revolutionary army to victory, was the first president elected under the new constitution. The Bill of Rights, forbidding federal restriction of personal freedoms and guaranteeing a range of legal protections, was adopted in 1791.[116]

Although the federal government criminalized the international slave trade in 1808, after 1820, cultivation of the highly profitable cotton crop exploded in the Deep South, and along with it, the slave population.[117][118][119] The Second Great Awakening, especially 1800–1840, converted millions to evangelical Protestantism. In the North, it energized multiple social reform movements, including abolitionism;[120] in the South, Methodists and Baptists proselytized among slave populations.[121]

Americans' eagerness to expand westward prompted a long series of American Indian Wars.[122] The Louisiana Purchase of French-claimed territory in 1803 almost doubled the nation's area.[123] The War of 1812, declared against Britain over various grievances and fought to a draw, strengthened U.S. nationalism.[124] A series of military incursions into Florida led Spain to cede it and other Gulf Coast territory in 1819.[125] Expansion was aided by steam power, when steamboats began traveling along America's large water systems, which were connected by new canals, such as the Erie and the I&M; then, even faster railroads began their stretch across the nation's land.[126]

From 1820 to 1850, Jacksonian democracy began a set of reforms which included wider white male suffrage; it led to the rise of the Second Party System of Democrats and Whigs as the dominant parties from 1828 to 1854. The Trail of Tears in the 1830s exemplified the Indian removal policy that resettled Indians into the west on Indian reservations. The U.S. annexed the Republic of Texas in 1845 during a period of expansionist Manifest destiny.[127] The 1846 Oregon Treaty with Britain led to U.S. control of the present-day American Northwest.[128] Victory in the Mexican–American War resulted in the 1848 Mexican Cession of California and much of the present-day American Southwest.[129]

The California Gold Rush of 1848–49 spurred western migration and the creation of additional western states.[130] After the American Civil War, new transcontinental railways made relocation easier for settlers, expanded internal trade and increased conflicts with Native Americans.[131] Over a half-century, the loss of the American bison (sometimes called "buffalo") was an existential blow to many Plains Indians cultures.[132] In 1869, a new Peace Policy sought to protect Native-Americans from abuses, avoid further war, and secure their eventual U.S. citizenship, although conflicts, including several of the largest Indian Wars, continued throughout the West into the 1900s.[133]

Civil War and Reconstruction Era
Further information: American Civil War and Reconstruction Era

The Battle of Gettysburg by Thure de Thulstrup
Differences of opinion and social order between northern and southern states in early United States society, particularly regarding Black slavery, ultimately led to the American Civil War.[134] Initially, states entering the Union alternated between slave and free states, keeping a sectional balance in the Senate, while free states outstripped slave states in population and in the House of Representatives. But with additional western territory and more free-soil states, tensions between slave and free states mounted with arguments over federalism and disposition of the territories, whether and how to expand or restrict slavery.[135]

With the 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln, the first president from the largely anti-slavery Republican Party, conventions in thirteen slave states ultimately declared secession and formed the Confederate States of America, while the federal government maintained that secession was illegal.[135] The ensuing war was at first for Union, then after 1863 as casualties mounted and Lincoln delivered his Emancipation Proclamation, a second war aim became abolition of slavery. The war remains the deadliest military conflict in American history, resulting in the deaths of approximately 618,000 soldiers as well as many civilians.[136]

Following the Union victory in 1865, three amendments were added to the U.S. Constitution: the Thirteenth Amendment prohibited slavery, the Fourteenth Amendment provided citizenship to the nearly four million African Americans who had been slaves,[137] and the Fifteenth Amendment ensured that they had the right to vote. The war and its resolution led to a substantial increase in federal power[138] aimed at reintegrating and rebuilding the Southern states while ensuring the rights of the newly freed slaves.

Southern white conservatives, calling themselves "Redeemers" took control after the end of Reconstruction. By the 1890–1910 period Jim Crow laws disenfranchised most blacks and some poor whites. Blacks faced racial segregation, especially in the South.[139] Racial minorities occasionally experienced vigilante violence.[140]

Industrialization
Main articles: Economic history of the United States and Technological and industrial history of the United States

Ellis Island, in New York City, was a major gateway for European immigration[141]
In the North, urbanization and an unprecedented influx of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe supplied a surplus of labor for the country's industrialization and transformed its culture.[142] National infrastructure including telegraph and transcontinental railroads spurred economic growth and greater settlement and development of the American Old West. The later invention of electric light and the telephone would also affect communication and urban life.[143]

The end of the Indian Wars further expanded acreage under mechanical cultivation, increasing surpluses for international markets.[144] Mainland expansion was completed by the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867.[145] In 1893, pro-American elements in Hawaii overthrew the monarchy and formed the Republic of Hawaii, which the U.S. annexed in 1898. Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines were ceded by Spain in the same year, following the Spanish–American War.[146]

Rapid economic development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries fostered the rise of many prominent industrialists. Tycoons like Cornelius Vanderbilt, John D. Rockefeller, and Andrew Carnegie led the nation's progress in railroad, petroleum, and steel industries. Banking became a major part of the economy, with J. P. Morgan playing a notable role. Edison and Tesla undertook the widespread distribution of electricity to industry, homes, and for street lighting. Henry Ford revolutionized the automotive industry. The American economy boomed, becoming the world's largest, and the United States achieved great power status.[147] These dramatic changes were accompanied by social unrest and the rise of populist, socialist, and anarchist movements.[148] This period eventually ended with the advent of the Progressive Era, which saw significant reforms in many societal areas, including women's suffrage, alcohol prohibition, regulation of consumer goods, greater antitrust measures to ensure competition and attention to worker conditions.[149][150][151]

World War I, Great Depression, and World War II
Further information: World War I, Great Depression, and World War II
The United States remained neutral from the outbreak of World War I, in 1914, until 1917 when it joined the war as an "associated power", alongside the formal Allies of World War I, helping to turn the tide against the Central Powers. In 1919, President Woodrow Wilson took a leading diplomatic role at the Paris Peace Conference and advocated strongly for the U.S. to join the League of Nations. However, the Senate refused to approve this, and did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles that established the League of Nations.[152]

In 1920, the women's rights movement won passage of a constitutional amendment granting women's suffrage.[153] The 1920s and 1930s saw the rise of radio for mass communication and the invention of early television.[154] The prosperity of the Roaring Twenties ended with the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the onset of the Great Depression. After his election as president in 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt responded with the New Deal, which included the establishment of the Social Security system.[155] The Great Migration of millions of African Americans out of the American South began before World War I and extended through the 1960s;[156] whereas the Dust Bowl of the mid-1930s impoverished many farming communities and spurred a new wave of western migration.[157]

At first effectively neutral during World War II while Germany conquered much of continental Europe, the United States began supplying material to the Allies in March 1941 through the Lend-Lease program. On December 7, 1941, the Empire of Japan launched a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, prompting the United States to join the Allies against the Axis powers.[158] During the war, the United States was referred as one of the "Four Policemen"[159] of Allies power who met to plan the postwar world, along with Britain, the Soviet Union and China.[160][161] Though the nation lost more than 400,000 soldiers,[162] it emerged relatively undamaged from the war with even greater economic and military influence.[163]

The United States played a leading role in the Bretton Woods and Yalta conferences with the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and other Allies, which signed agreements on new international financial institutions and Europe's postwar reorganization. As an Allied victory was won in Europe, a 1945 international conference held in San Francisco produced the United Nations Charter, which became active after the war.[164] The United States developed the first nuclear weapons and used them on Japan in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; causing the Japanese to surrender on September 2, ending World War II.[165][166] Parades and celebrations followed in what is known as Victory Day, or V-J Day.[167]

Cold War and civil rights era
Main articles: History of the United States (1945–64), History of the United States (1964–80), and History of the United States (1980–91)
Further information: Cold War, Civil Rights Movement, War on Poverty, Space Race, and Reaganomics

U.S. President Ronald Reagan at his "Tear down this wall!" speech in Berlin, Germany on June 12, 1987.[168]
After World War II the United States and the Soviet Union jockeyed for power during what became known as the Cold War, driven by an ideological divide between capitalism and communism[169] and, according to the school of geopolitics, a divide between the maritime Atlantic and the continental Eurasian camps. They dominated the military affairs of Europe, with the U.S. and its NATO allies on one side and the USSR and its Warsaw Pact allies on the other. The U.S. developed a policy of containment towards the expansion of communist influence. While the U.S. and Soviet Union engaged in proxy wars and developed powerful nuclear arsenals, the two countries avoided direct military conflict.

The United States often opposed Third World movements that it viewed as Soviet-sponsored. American troops fought communist Chinese and North Korean forces in the Korean War of 1950–53.[170] The Soviet Union's 1957 launch of the first artificial satellite and its 1961 launch of the first manned spaceflight initiated a "Space Race" in which the United States became the first nation to land a man on the moon in 1969.[170] A proxy war in Southeast Asia eventually evolved into full American participation, as the Vietnam War.

At home, the U.S. experienced sustained economic expansion and a rapid growth of its population and middle class. Construction of an Interstate Highway System transformed the nation's infrastructure over the following decades. Millions moved from farms and inner cities to large suburban housing developments.[171][172] In 1959 Hawaii became the 50th and last U.S. state added to the country.[173] The growing Civil Rights Movement used nonviolence to confront segregation and discrimination, with Martin Luther King Jr. becoming a prominent leader and figurehead. A combination of court decisions and legislation, culminating in the Civil Rights Act of 1968, sought to end racial discrimination.[174][175][176] Meanwhile, a counterculture movement grew which was fueled by opposition to the Vietnam war, black nationalism, and the sexual revolution.

The launch of a "War on Poverty" expanded entitlements and welfare spending, including the creation of Medicare and Medicaid, two programs that provide health coverage to the elderly and poor, respectively, and the means-tested Food Stamp Program and Aid to Families with Dependent Children.[177]

The 1970s and early 1980s saw the onset of stagflation. After his election in 1980, President Ronald Reagan responded to economic stagnation with free-market oriented reforms. Following the collapse of détente, he abandoned "containment" and initiated the more aggressive "rollback" strategy towards the USSR.[178][179][180][181][182] After a surge in female labor participation over the previous decade, by 1985 the majority of women aged 16 and over were employed.[183]

The late 1980s brought a "thaw" in relations with the USSR, and its collapse in 1991 finally ended the Cold War.[184][185][186][187] This brought about unipolarity[188] with the U.S. unchallenged as the world's dominant superpower. The concept of Pax Americana, which had appeared in the post-World War II period, gained wide popularity as a term for the post-Cold War new world order.

 

Death Death from Death

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The United States is a highly developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, totaling approximately a quarter of global GDP.[33] The U.S. economy is largely post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world.[34] Though its population is only 4.3% of the world total,[35] Americans hold 33.2% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country.[36] The United States ranks among the highest nations in several measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage,[37] human development, per capita GDP, and productivity per person.[38] The U.S. is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending.[39]

Contents [hide]
1 Etymology
2 History
2.1 Indigenous peoples and pre-Columbian history
2.2 European settlements
2.2.1 Effects on and interaction with native populations
2.3 Independence and expansion (1776–1865)
2.4 Civil War and Reconstruction Era
2.5 Industrialization
2.6 World War I, Great Depression, and World War II
2.7 Cold War and civil rights era
2.8 Contemporary history
3 Geography, climate, and environment
3.1 Wildlife
4 Demographics
4.1 Population
4.2 Language
4.3 Religion
4.4 Family structure
5 Government and politics
5.1 Political divisions
5.2 Parties and elections
5.3 Foreign relations
5.4 Government finance
5.5 Military
6 Law enforcement and crime
7 Economy
7.1 Income, poverty and wealth
8 Infrastructure
8.1 Transportation
8.2 Energy
8.3 Water supply and sanitation
9 Education
10 Culture
10.1 Food
10.2 Literature, philosophy, and the arts
10.3 Music
10.4 Cinema
10.5 Sports
10.6 Media
11 Science and technology
12 Health
13 See also
14 Notes
15 References
16 Bibliography
16.1 Internet sources
17 External links
Etymology
See also: Naming of America, Names for United States citizens, and American (word)

The Americas are named after Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci.[40]
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere the Americas in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci (Latin: Americus Vespucius).[41] The first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq., George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army. Addressed to Lt. Col. Joseph Reed, Moylan expressed his wish to carry the "full and ample powers of the United States of America" to Spain to assist in the revolutionary war effort.[42]

The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the 'United States of America.'"[43] The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be 'The United States of America'".[44] In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence.[43] This draft of the document did not surface until June 21, 1776, and it is unclear whether it was written before or after Dickinson used the term in his June 17 draft of the Articles of Confederation.[43]

The short form "United States" is also standard. Other common forms are the "U.S.", the "USA", and "America". Colloquial names are the "U.S. of A." and, internationally, the "States". "Columbia", a name popular in poetry and songs of the late 18th century, derives its origin from Christopher Columbus; it appears in the name "District of Columbia".[45]

The phrase "United States" was originally plural, a description of a collection of independent states—e.g., "the United States are"—including in the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1865.[46] The singular form—e.g., "the United States is"—became popular after the end of the American Civil War. The singular form is now standard; the plural form is retained in the idiom "these United States". The difference is more significant than usage; it is a difference between a collection of states and a unit.[47]

A citizen of the United States is an "American". "United States", "American" and "U.S." refer to the country adjectivally ("American values", "U.S. forces"). In English, the word "American" rarely refers to topics or subjects not connected with the United States.[48]

History
Main articles: History of the United States, Timeline of United States history, American business history, Economic history of the United States, and Labor history of the United States
Indigenous peoples and pre-Columbian history
Further information: Pre-Columbian era and Colonial history of the United States

Artist's re-creation of the Kincaid Site from the prehistoric Mississippian culture, as it may have looked[49]
The first inhabitants of North America migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 15,000 years ago, though increasing evidence suggests an even earlier arrival.[50] After crossing the land bridge, the first Americans moved southward, either along the Pacific coast[51][52] or through an interior ice-free corridor between the Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets.[53] The Clovis culture appeared around 11,000 BC, and it is considered to be an ancestor of most of the later indigenous cultures of the Americas.[54] While the Clovis culture was thought, throughout the late 20th century, to represent the first human settlement of the Americas,[55] in recent years consensus has changed in recognition of pre-Clovis cultures.[56]

Over time, indigenous cultures in North America grew increasingly complex, and some, such as the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture in the southeast, developed advanced agriculture, grand architecture, and state-level societies.[57] From approximately 800 to 1600 AD[58] the Mississippian culture flourished, and its largest city Cahokia is considered the largest, most complex pre-Columbian archaeological site in the modern-day United States.[59] In the southern Great Lakes region, the Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee) was established at some point between the twelfth[60] and fifteenth centuries,[61] lasting until the end of the Revolutionary War.[62]

The date of the first settlements of the Hawaiian Islands is a topic of continuing debate.[63] Archaeological evidence seems to indicate a settlement as early as 124 AD.[64] During his third and final voyage, Captain James Cook became the first European to begin formal contact with Hawaii.[65] After his initial landfall in January 1778 at Waimea harbour, Kauai, Cook named the archipelago the "Sandwich Islands" after the fourth Earl of Sandwich—the acting First Lord of the Admiralty of the British Royal Navy.[66]

European settlements
Further information: European colonization of the Americas and Thirteen Colonies

Saint Augustine, Florida, the oldest continuously occupied European-established settlement in the continental United States (1565)[67]

The Mayflower Compact, 1620 by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris
After Spain sent Columbus on his first voyage to the New World in 1492, other explorers followed. The first Europeans to arrive in territory of the modern United States were Spanish conquistadors such as Juan Ponce de León, who made his first visit to Florida in 1513. The Spanish set up the first settlements in Florida and New Mexico such as Saint Augustine[67] and Santa Fe. The French established their own as well along the Mississippi River. Successful English settlement on the eastern coast of North America began with the Virginia Colony in 1607 at Jamestown and the Pilgrims' Plymouth Colony in 1620. Many settlers were dissenting Christian groups who came seeking religious freedom. The continent's first elected legislative assembly, Virginia's House of Burgesses created in 1619, the Mayflower Compact, signed by the Pilgrims before disembarking, and the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, established precedents for the pattern of representative self-government and constitutionalism that would develop throughout the American colonies.[68][69]

Most settlers in every colony were small farmers, but other industries developed within a few decades as varied as the settlements. Cash crops included tobacco, rice and wheat. Extraction industries grew up in furs, fishing and lumber. Manufacturers produced rum and ships, and by the late colonial period Americans were producing one-seventh of the world's iron supply.[70] Cities eventually dotted the coast to support local economies and serve as trade hubs. English colonists were supplemented by waves of Scotch-Irish and other groups. As coastal land grew more expensive freed indentured servants pushed further west.[71]

A large-scale slave trade with English privateers was begun.[72] The life expectancy of slaves was much higher in North America than further south, because of less disease and better food and treatment, leading to a rapid increase in the numbers of slaves.[73][74] Colonial society was largely divided over the religious and moral implications of slavery and colonies passed acts for and against the practice.[75][76] But by the turn of the 18th century, African slaves were replacing indentured servants for cash crop labor, especially in southern regions.[77]

With the British colonization of Georgia in 1732, the 13 colonies that would become the United States of America were established.[78] All had local governments with elections open to most free men, with a growing devotion to the ancient rights of Englishmen and a sense of self-government stimulating support for republicanism.[79] With extremely high birth rates, low death rates, and steady settlement, the colonial population grew rapidly. Relatively small Native American populations were eclipsed.[80] The Christian revivalist movement of the 1730s and 1740s known as the Great Awakening fueled interest in both religion and religious liberty.[81]

During the Seven Years' War (in America, known as the French and Indian War), British forces seized Canada from the French, but the francophone population remained politically isolated from the southern colonies. Excluding the Native Americans, who were being conquered and displaced, the 13 British colonies had a population of over 2.1 million in 1770, about one-third that of Britain. Despite continuing new arrivals, the rate of natural increase was such that by the 1770s only a small minority of Americans had been born overseas.[82] The colonies' distance from Britain had allowed the development of self-government, but their success motivated monarchs to periodically seek to reassert royal authority.[83]

In 1774 the Spanish Navy ship Santiago, under Juan Pérez had entered and anchored in the inlet at Nootka Sound. Although the Spanish did not land, natives paddled to the ship to trade furs for abalone shells from California.[84] At the time, the Spanish were able to monopolize the trade between Asia and North America, granting limited licenses to the Portuguese. When the Russians began establishing a growing fur trading system in Alaska the Spanish began to challenge the Russians, with Pérez's voyage being the first of many to the Pacific Northwest.[85][fn 8]

After having arrived in the Hawaiian islands in 1778, Captain Cook sailed north and then north-east to explore the west coast of North America north of the Spanish settlements in Alta California. He made landfall on the Oregon coast at approximately 44°30? north latitude, naming his landing point Cape Foulweather. Bad weather forced his ships south to about 43° north before they could begin their exploration of the coast northward.[87] In March 1778, Cook landed on Bligh Island and named the inlet "King George's Sound". He recorded that the native name was Nutka or Nootka, apparently misunderstanding his conversations at Friendly Cove/Yuquot; his informant may have been explaining that he was on an island (itchme nutka, a place you can "go around"). There may also have been confusion with Nuu-chah-nulth, the natives' autonym (name for themselves). It may also have simply been based on Cook’s mispronunciation of Yuquot, the native name of the place.[88]

Effects on and interaction with native populations
Further information: American Indian Wars, Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, and James Cook
With the progress of European colonization in the territories of the contemporary United States, the Native Americans were often conquered and displaced.[89] The native population of America declined after Europeans arrived, and for various reasons, primarily diseases such as smallpox and measles. Violence was not a significant factor in the overall decline among Native Americans, though conflict among themselves and with Europeans affected specific tribes and various colonial settlements.[90][91][92][93][94][95]

In the early days of colonization, many European settlers were subject to food shortages, disease, and attacks from Native Americans. Native Americans were also often at war with neighboring tribes and allied with Europeans in their colonial wars. At the same time, however, many natives and settlers came to depend on each other. Settlers traded for food and animal pelts, natives for guns, ammunition and other European wares.[96] Natives taught many settlers where, when and how to cultivate corn, beans and squash. European missionaries and others felt it was important to "civilize" the Native Americans and urged them to adopt European agricultural techniques and lifestyles.[97][98]

 

Bibliography Bibliography from Bibliography

Thursday, 14-09-17 13:09

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