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Prasad, M.; Deng, Y. (April 2, 2009). "Taxation and the worlds of welfare". Socio-Economic Review. 7 (3): 431–457. doi:10.1093/ser/mwp005. Retrieved May 5, 2013.
Matthews, Dylan (September 19, 2012). "Other countries don't have a "47%"". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 29, 2013.
"How Much Do People Pay in Federal Taxes?". Peter G. Peterson Foundation. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
"T13-0174 – Average Effective Federal Tax Rates by Filing Status; by Expanded Cash Income Percentile, 2014". The Tax Policy Center. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
Jump up ^ Huang, Chye-Ching; Frentz, Nathaniel. "What Do OECD Data Really Show About U.S. Taxes and Reducing Inequality?". Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Retrieved September 13, 2015.
^ Jump up to: a b c Matthews, Dylan (September 19, 2012). "Other countries don't have a "47%"". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 29, 2013.
Jump up ^ Piketty, Thomas; Saez, Emmanuel (August 2006). "How Progressive is the U.S. Federal Tax System? A Historical and International Perspective". National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved September 22, 2015.
Jump up ^ Jane Wells (December 11, 2013). "The rich do not pay the most taxes, they pay ALL the taxes". CNBC. Retrieved January 14, 2015.
Steve Hargreaves (March 12, 2013). "The rich pay majority of U.S. income taxes". CNN. Retrieved January 14, 2015.
"Top 10 Percent of Earners Paid 68 Percent of Federal Income Taxes". 2014 Federal Budget in Pictures. The Heritage Foundation. 2015. Archived from the original on January 6, 2015. Retrieved February 25, 2017.
Stephen Dinan (July 10, 2012). "CBO: The wealthy pay 70 percent of taxes". Washington Times. Retrieved January 14, 2015.
"The Tax Man Cometh! But For Whom?". NPR. April 15, 2012. Retrieved January 14, 2015.
Jump up ^ Wamhoff, Steve (April 7, 2014). "Who Pays Taxes in America in 2014?" (PDF). Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy. Retrieved January 17, 2015.
Jump up ^ Agadoni, Laura. "Characteristics of a Regressive Tax". Houston Chronicle Small Business blog.
Jump up ^ "TPC Tax Topics | Payroll Taxes". Taxpolicycenter.org. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
Jump up ^ "The Design of the Original Social Security Act". Social Security Online. U.S. Social Security Administration. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
Jump up ^ Blahous, Charles (February 24, 2012). "The Dark Side of the Payroll Tax Cut". Defining Ideas. Hoover Institution. Archived from the original on October 16, 2013. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
Jump up ^ "Is Social SecurityProgressove? CBO" (PDF).
Jump up ^ "The Distribution of Household Income and Federal Taxes, 2008 and 2009" (PDF). Congressional Budget Office. July 2012. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
Jump up ^ Ohlemacher, Stephen (March 3, 2013). "Tax bills for rich families approach 30-year high". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. Archived from the original on October 29, 2014. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
Jump up ^ "Who will pay what in 2013 taxes?". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. March 3, 2013. Archived from the original on October 29, 2014. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
Jump up ^ Tax incidence of corporate tax in the United States:
Harris, Benjamin H. (November 2009). "Corporate Tax Incidence and Its Implications for Progressivity" (PDF). Tax Policy Center. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
Gentry, William M. (December 2007). "A Review of the Evidence on the Incidence of the Corporate Income Tax" (PDF). OTA Paper 101. Office of Tax Analysis, U.S. Department of the Treasury. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 1, 2013. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
Fullerton, Don; Metcalf, Gilbert E. (2002). "Tax Incidence". In A.J. Auerbach and M. Feldstein. Handbook of Public Economics. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B.V. pp. 1788–1839. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
Musgrave, R.A.; Carroll, J.J.; Cook, L.D.; Frane, L. (March 1951). "Distribution of Tax Payments by Income Groups: A Case Study for 1948" (PDF). National Tax Journal. 4 (1): 1–53. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
Jump up ^ Malm, Elizabeth (February 20, 2013). "Comments on Who Pays? A Distributional Analysis of the Tax Systems in All 50 States". Tax Foundation. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
Jump up ^ "IMF, United States General government gross debt". Imf.org. September 14, 2006. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
Jump up ^ "Debt to the Penny (Daily History Search Application)". TreasuryDirect. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
Jump up ^ Burgess Everett (January 6, 2015). "The next debt ceiling fight". Politico. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
Jump up ^ Thornton, Daniel L. (Nov–Dec 2012). "The U.S. Deficit/Debt Problem: A Longer–Run Perspective" (PDF). Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
Jump up ^ Lopez, Luciana (January 28, 2013). "Fitch backs away from downgrade of U.S. credit rating". Reuters. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
Jump up ^ "The Air Force in Facts and Figures (Armed Forces Manpower Trends, End Strength in Thousands)" (PDF). Air Force Magazine. May 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 13, 2013. Retrieved October 9, 2009.
Jump up ^ "What does Selective Service provide for America?". Selective Service System. Archived from the original on September 15, 2012. Retrieved February 11, 2012.
Jump up ^ "Base Structure Report, Fiscal Year 2008 Baseline" (PDF). Department of Defense. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 28, 2010. Retrieved October 9, 2009.
Jump up ^ "Active Duty Military Personnel Strengths by Regional Area and by Country (309A)" (PDF). Department of Defense. March 31, 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 24, 2013. Retrieved October 7, 2010.
Jump up ^ "The 15 Countries with the Highest Military Expenditure in 2011". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 9, 2013. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
Jump up ^ "Compare". CIA World Factbook. RealClearWorld. Archived from the original on December 20, 2012. Retrieved February 4, 2013.
Jump up ^ "Fiscal Year 2013 Historical Tables" (PDF). Budget of the U.S. Government. White House OMB. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 17, 2012. Retrieved November 24, 2012.
Jump up ^ "Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Request Overview" (PDF). Department of Defense. February 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 25, 2011.
Jump up ^ Basu, Moni (December 18, 2011). "Deadly Iraq War Ends with Exit of Last U.S. Troops". CNN. Retrieved February 5, 2012.
Jump up ^ "Operation Iraqi Freedom". Iraq Coalition Casualty Count. February 5, 2012. Archived from the original on March 21, 2011. Retrieved February 5, 2012.
Jump up ^ Cherian, John (April 7, 2012). "Turning Point". Frontline. The Hindu Group. Archived from the original on December 2, 2012. Retrieved December 2, 2012. There are currently 90,000 U.S. troops deployed in the country.
Jump up ^ "Department of Defence Defence Casualty Analysis System". Department of Defense. November 2013. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
Jump up ^ "Local Police Departments, 2003" (PDF). U.S. Dept. of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. May 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
Jump up ^ "U.S. Federal Law Enforcement Agencies, Who Governs & What They Do". Chiff.com. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
Jump up ^ "Plea Bargains". Findlaw. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
"Interview with Judge Michael McSpadden". PBS. December 16, 2003.
Jump up ^ Beckett, Lois; Aufrichtig, Aliza; Davis, Kenan (September 26, 2016). "Murders up 10.8% in biggest percentage increase since 1971, FBI data shows". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved December 22, 2016.
Jump up ^ "Murders Rose At Their Fastest Pace In A Quarter-Century Last Year". FiveThirtyEight. September 26, 2016.
Jump up ^ Kaste, Martin (March 30, 2015). "Open Cases: Why One-Third Of Murders In America Go Unresolved". NPR. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
Jump up ^ "Uniform Crime Reporting Statistics". U.S Department of Justice Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved November 16, 2013.
"Crime in the United States, 2011". FBI '(Uniform Crime Statistics—Murder)'. Retrieved January 23, 2013.
"UNODC Homicide Statistics". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Retrieved January 23, 2013.
Jump up ^ "Eighth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2001–2002)" (PDF). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). March 31, 2005. Retrieved May 18, 2008.
Jump up ^ Grinshteyn, Erin; Hemenway, David (March 2016). "Violent Death Rates: The US Compared with Other High-income OECD Countries, 2010". The American Journal of Medicine. pp. 226–273. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.10.025. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
Jump up ^ Alexia Cooper; Erica L. Smith (November 2011). "Homicide Trends in the United States, 1980–2008" (PDF). U.S. Department of Justice. pp. 3, 12. Retrieved November 14, 2015.
Jump up ^ Fuchs, Erin (October 1, 2013). "Why Louisiana Is The Murder Capital of America". Business Insider.
Jump up ^ Agren, David (October 19, 2014). "Mexico crime belies government claims of progress". Florida Today – USA Today. Melbourne, Florida. pp. 4B. Retrieved October 19, 2014.
Jump up ^ Connor, Tracy; Chuck, Elizabeth (May 28, 2015). "Nebraska's Death Penalty Repealed With Veto Override". NBC News. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
Jump up ^ Simpson, Ian (May 2, 2013). "Maryland becomes latest U.S. state to abolish death penalty". Reuters. Retrieved April 6, 2016.
Jump up ^ "Searchable Execution Database". Death Penalty Information Center. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
Jump up ^ "Death Sentences and Executions 2015". Amnesty International USA. 2015. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
Jump up ^ Schmidt, Steffen W.; Shelley, Mack C.; Bardes, Barbara A. (2008). American Government & Politics Today. Cengage Learning. p. 591. ISBN 978-0-495-50228-9. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
Walmsley, Roy (2005). "World Prison Population List" (PDF). King's College London, International Centre for Prison Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 28, 2007. For the latest data, see "Prison Brief for United States of America". King's College London, International Centre for Prison Studies. June 21, 2006. Archived from the original on August 4, 2007.
National Research Council. The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2014. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
Nation Behind Bars: A Human Rights Solution. Human Rights Watch, May 2014. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
Jump up ^ Barkan, Steven E.; Bryjak, George J. (2011). Fundamentals of Criminal Justice: A Sociological View. Jones & Bartlett. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-4496-5439-9. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
Jump up ^ Glaze, Lauren E.; Herberman, Erinn J. (December 2013). "Correctional Populations in the United States, 2012" (PDF).
Jump up ^ Iadicola, Peter; Shupe, Anson (October 26, 2012). Violence, Inequality, and Human Freedom. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 456. ISBN 978-1-4422-0949-7.
Jump up ^ Emma Brown and Danielle Douglas-Gabriel (July 7, 2016). Since 1980, spending on prisons has grown three times as much as spending on public education. The Washington Post. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
Jump up ^ "Prisoners in 2013" (PDF). Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Jump up ^ "United States of America – International Centre for Prison Studies". International Centre for Prison Studies.
Jump up ^ Clear, Todd R.; Cole, George F.; Reisig, Michael Dean (2008). American Corrections. Cengage Learning. p. 485. ISBN 978-0-495-55323-6. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
Jump up ^ "Federal Bureau of Prisons: Statistics". Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
Jump up ^ Moore, ADRIAN T. "PRIVATE PRISONS: Quality Corrections at a Lower Cost" (PDF). Reason.org. Reason Foundation. Retrieved April 29, 2015.
Benefield, Nathan (October 24, 2007). "Private Prisons Increase Capacity, Save Money, Improve Service". Commonwealth Foundation.org. Commonwealth Foundation. Retrieved April 29, 2015.
William G. Archambeault; Donald R. Deis, Jr. (1997–1998). "Cost Effectiveness Comparisons of Private Versus Public Prisons in Louisiana: A Comprehensive Analysis of Allen, Avoyelles, and Winn Correctional Centers" (PDF). Journal of the Oklahoma Criminal Justice Research Consortium. 4. Retrieved April 29, 2015.
Volokh, Alexander (May 1, 2002). "A Tale of Two Systems: Cost, Quality, and Accountability in Private Prisons". Harvard Law Review. 115: 1868. Retrieved April 29, 2015.
Jump up ^ Selman, Donna and Paul Leighton (2010). Punishment for Sale: Private Prisons, Big Business, and the Incarceration Binge. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. xi. ISBN 1-4422-0173-8.
Harcourt, Bernard (2012). The Illusion of Free Markets: Punishment and the Myth of Natural Order. Harvard University Press. pp. 235 & 236. ISBN 0-674-06616-2.
John L. Campbell (2010). "Neoliberalism's penal and debtor states". Theoretical Criminology. 14 (1): 59–73. doi:10.1177/1362480609352783.
Joe Davidson (August 12, 2016). Private federal prisons – less safe, less secure. The Washington Post. Retrieved August 13, 2016.
Gottschalk, Marie (2014). Caught: The Prison State and the Lockdown of American Politics. Princeton University Press. p. 70 ISBN 0-691-16405-3.
Peter Kerwin (June 10, 2015). Study finds private prisons keep inmates longer, without reducing future crime. University of Wisconsin–Madison News. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
Jump up ^ Chang, Cindy (May 29, 2012). "Louisiana is the world's prison capital". The Times-Picayune. Retrieved April 4, 2013.
Jump up ^ Mears, Daniel P. (2010). American Criminal Justice Policy: An Evaluation Approach to Increasing Accountability and Effectiveness. Cambridge University Press. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-521-76246-5. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
^ Jump up to: a b "GDP Estimates". Bureau of Economic Analysis. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
Jump up ^ "GDP Estimates 2012–2015". Bureau of Economic Analysis. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
Jump up ^ "CONSUMER PRICE INDEX – AUGUST 2016" (PDF). Bureau of Labor Statistics. August 2016. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
Jump up ^ "Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey". Bureau of Labor Statistics. August 2016. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
Jump up ^ "Employment Situation Summary". Bureau of Labor Statistics. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
Jump up ^ "Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey". Bureau of Labor Statistics. United States Department of Labor. August 2016. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
Jump up ^ "Treasury Direct". Treasury Direct. November 9, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
Jump up ^ "Federal Reserve Statistical Release" (PDF). Federal Reserve. Federal Reserve. 2015. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
Jump up ^ The United States of America. PediaPress. p. 24. GGKEY:2CYQCESKTB7.
Jump up ^ Wright, Gavin; Czelusta, Jesse (2007). "Resource-Based Growth Past and Present", in Natural Resources: Neither Curse Nor Destiny, ed. Daniel Lederman and William Maloney. World Bank. p. 185. ISBN 0-8213-6545-2.
^ Jump up to: a b "World Economic Outlook Database: United States". International Monetary Fund. October 2014. Retrieved November 2, 2014.
Jump up ^ "European Union GDP". International Monetary Fund. International Monetary Fund. April 2014. Retrieved June 14, 2014.
^ Jump up to: a b Hagopian, Kip; Ohanian, Lee (August 1, 2012). "The Mismeasure of Inequality". Policy Review. Hoover Institution Stanford University. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
Jump up ^ "Currency Composition of Official Foreign Exchange Reserves" (PDF). International Monetary Fund. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 7, 2014. Retrieved April 9, 2012.
^ Jump up to: a b "Trade Statistics". Greyhill Advisors. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
Jump up ^ "Top Ten Countries with which the U.S. Trades". U.S. Census Bureau. August 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2009.
Jump up ^ "Major Foreign Holders of Treasury Securities". treasury.gov. Archived from the original on October 17, 2015. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
Jump up ^ "Who Holds Our Debt?".
Jump up ^ "The TRUTH About Who Really Owns All of America's Debt".
Jump up ^ "This surprising chart shows which countries own the most U.S. debt".
Jump up ^ "National debt: Whom does the US owe?".
Jump up ^ "World's Top 5 arms exporters". United Press International. Retrieved March 18, 2015.
Jump up ^ "China becomes the world's third largest arms exporter". BBC News. March 15, 2015. Retrieved March 18, 2015.
Shankar, Sneha (March 17, 2015). "US Remains World's Largest Exporter of Arms While India Leaps Ahead To Become Largest Importer: Study". International Business Times. Retrieved March 18, 2015.
Jump up ^ "GDP by Industry". Greyhill Advisors. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
Jump up ^ "Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and selected industry detail [In thousands]". bls.gov.
^ Jump up to: a b "USA Economy in Brief". U.S. Dept. of State, International Information Programs. Archived from the original on March 12, 2008.
Jump up ^ "Table 724—Number of Tax Returns, Receipts, and Net Income by Type of Business and Industry: 2005". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original (XLS) on February 9, 2012. Retrieved October 12, 2009.
Jump up ^ "Sony, LG, Wal-Mart among Most Extendible Brands". Cheskin. June 6, 2005. Archived from the original on March 25, 2006. Retrieved June 19, 2007.
Jump up ^ "Table 964—Gross Domestic Product in Current and Real (2000) Dollars by Industry: 2006". U.S. Census Bureau. May 2008. Archived from the original on February 9, 2012. Retrieved October 12, 2009.
Jump up ^ "U.S. surges past Saudis to become world's top oil supplier -PIRA". Reuters.
Jump up ^ "Coal Statistics". National Mining Association. Archived from the original on December 16, 2012. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
Jump up ^ "Minerals Production". National Mining Association. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
Jump up ^ "Corn". U.S. Grains Council. Archived from the original on January 12, 2008. Retrieved March 13, 2008.
Jump up ^ "Soybean Demand Continues to Drive Production". Worldwatch Institute. November 6, 2007. Retrieved March 13, 2008.
Jump up ^ "ISAAA Brief 39-2008: Executive Summary—Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2008" (PDF). International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications. p. 15. Retrieved July 16, 2010.
Jump up ^ "Personal Consumption Expenditures (PCE)/Gross Domestic Product (GDP)" FRED Graph, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis
Jump up ^ Fuller, Thomas (June 15, 2005). "In the East, many EU work rules don't apply". International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on June 16, 2005.
Jump up ^ "Doing Business in the United States". World Bank. 2006. Retrieved June 28, 2007.
Jump up ^ Isabelle Joumard; Mauro Pisu; Debbie Bloch (2012). "Tackling income inequality The role of taxes and transfers" (PDF). OECD. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
Jump up ^ Ray, Rebecca; Sanes, Milla; Schmitt, John (May 2013). No-Vacation Nation Revisited. Center for Economic and Policy Research. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
Jump up ^ Bernard. Tara Siegel (February 22, 2013). "In Paid Family Leave, U.S. Trails Most of the Globe". The New York Times. Retrieved August 27, 2013.
^ Jump up to: a b Vasel, Kathryn. "Who doesn't get paid sick leave?". CNN.
Jump up ^ "Total Economy Database, Summary Statistics, 1995–2010". Total Economy Database. The Conference Board. September 2010. Retrieved September 20, 2009.
Jump up ^ "Chart Book: The Legacy of the Great Recession". Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. March 12, 2013. Retrieved March 27, 2013.
Jump up ^ Schwartz, Nelson (March 3, 2013). "Recovery in U.S. Is Lifting Profits, but Not Adding Jobs". The New York Times. Retrieved March 18, 2013.
Jump up ^ McKinnon, John D. (January 1, 2013). "Analysis: 77% of Households to See Tax Increase". The Wall Street Journal (blog). New York. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
Jump up ^ Gongloff, Mark (September 17, 2013). "Median Income Falls For 5th Year, Inequality at Record High". The Huffington Post. Retrieved October 4, 2013.
Jump up ^ "Household Income". Society at a Glance 2014: OECD Social Indicators. OECD Publishing. March 18, 2014. doi:10.1787/soc_glance-2014-en. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
Jump up ^ Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. "Income". OECD Better Life Index. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved May 26, 2017. In the United States, the average household net adjusted disposable income per capita is USD 41 071 a year, much higher than the OECD average of USD 29 016 and the highest figure in the OECD.
Jump up ^ "OECD Better Life Index". OECD. Retrieved November 25, 2012.
Jump up ^ https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/economy/us-middle-class-incomes-reached-highest-ever-level-in-2016-census-bureau-says/2017/09/12/7226905e-97de-11e7-b569-3360011663b4_story.html?utm_term=.aaa990f6eb11
Jump up ^ Sherman, Erik. "America is the richest, and most unequal, country". Fortune. Retrieved August 30, 2016.
Jump up ^ McCarthy, Niall. "The Countries With The Most Millionaires". Statista. Retrieved August 30, 2016.
Jump up ^ "Global Food Security Index". London: The Economist Intelligence Unit. March 5, 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
Jump up ^ Rector, Robert; Sheffield, Rachel (September 13, 2011). "Understanding Poverty in the United States: Surprising Facts About America's Poor". Heritage Foundation. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
Jump up ^ "Human Development Report 2014" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. p. 168. Retrieved July 26, 2014.
Jump up ^ https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/economy/us-middle-class-incomes-reached-highest-ever-level-in-2016-census-bureau-says/2017/09/12/7226905e-97de-11e7-b569-3360011663b4_story.html?utm_term=.aaa990f6eb11
Jump up ^ Mishel, Lawrence (April 26, 2012). The wedges between productivity and median compensation growth. Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved October 18, 2013.
Jump up ^ Anderson, Richard G. (2007). "How Well Do Wages Follow Productivity Growth?" (PDF). St. Louis Federal Reserve. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
Jump up ^ Alvaredo, Facundo; Atkinson, Anthony B.; Piketty, Thomas; Saez, Emmanuel (2013). "The Top 1 Percent in International and Historical Perspective". Journal of Economic Perspectives. Retrieved August 16, 2013.
Jump up ^ Smeeding, T.M. (2005). "Public Policy: Economic Inequality and Poverty: The United States in Comparative Perspective". Social Science Quarterly. 86: 955–983. doi:10.1111/j.0038-4941.2005.00331.x.
Tcherneva, Pavlina R. (April 2015). "When a rising tide sinks most boats: trends in US income inequality" (PDF). levyinstitute.org. Levy Economics Institute of Bard College. Retrieved April 10, 2015.
Saez, E. (October 2007). "Table A1: Top Fractiles Income Shares (Excluding Capital Gains) in the U.S., 1913–2005". UC Berkeley. Retrieved July 24, 2008.
"Field Listing—Distribution of Family Income—Gini Index". The World Factbook. CIA. June 14, 2007. Retrieved June 17, 2007.
Focus on Top Incomes and Taxation in OECD Countries: Was the crisis a game changer? OECD, May 2014. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
Jump up ^ Saez, Emmanuel (September 3, 2013). "Striking it Richer: The Evolution of Top Incomes in the United States". University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved September 11, 2013.
Jump up ^ Martin Gilens & Benjamin I. Page (2014). "Testing Theories of American Politics: Elites, Interest Groups, and Average Citizens" (PDF). Perspectives on Politics. 12 (3): 564–581. doi:10.1017/S1537592714001595.
Larry Bartels (2009). "Economic Inequality and Political Representation" (PDF). The Unsustainable American State: 167–196. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195392135.003.0007. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2016.
Thomas J. Hayes (2012). "Responsiveness in an Era of Inequality: The Case of the U.S. Senate". Political Research Quarterly. 66 (3): 585–599. SSRN 1900856?Freely accessible. doi:10.1177/1065912912459567.
Jump up ^ Winship, Scott (Spring 2013). "Overstating the Costs of Inequality" (PDF). National Affairs (15). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 13, 2014. Retrieved April 29, 2015.
"Income Inequality in America: Fact and Fiction" (PDF). Manhattan Institute. May 2014. Retrieved April 29, 2015.
Brunner, Eric; Ross, Stephen L; Washington, Ebonya (May 2013). "Does Less Income Mean Less Representation?" (PDF). American Economic Journal: Economic Policy. 5 (2): 53–76. doi:10.1257/pol.5.2.53. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
Feldstein, Martin (May 14, 2014). "Piketty's Numbers Don't Add Up: Ignoring dramatic changes in tax rules since 1980 creates the false impression that income inequality is rising.". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
Jump up ^ Weston, Liz (May 10, 2016). "Americans Are Pissed – This Chart Might Explain Why". nerdwallet.com.
Jump up ^ Piketty, Thomas (2014). Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Belknap Press. ISBN 0-674-43000-X p. 257
Jump up ^ Altman, Roger C. "The Great Crash, 2008". Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on December 23, 2008. Retrieved February 27, 2009.
Jump up ^ "Americans' wealth drops $1.3 trillion". CNN Money. June 11, 2009.
Jump up ^ "Households and Nonprofit Organizations; Net Worth, Level". stlouisfed.org. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
Jump up ^ "Household Debt and Credit Report". Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
Jump up ^ "U.S. household wealth falls $11.2 trillion in 2008". Reuters. Retrieved October 4, 2014.
Jump up ^ "The 2014 Annual Homeless Assessment Report (AHAR) to Congress" (PDF). The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. 2014. Retrieved August 6, 2015.
Jump up ^ "Household Food Security in the United States in 2011" (PDF). USDA. September 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 7, 2012. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
Jump up ^ New Census Bureau Statistics Show How Young Adults Today Compare With Previous Generations in Neighborhoods Nationwide. United States Census Bureau, December 4, 2014.
Jump up ^ "Interstate FAQ (Question #3)". Federal Highway Administration. 2006. Retrieved March 4, 2009.
Jump up ^ "Public Road and Street Mileage in the United States by Type of Surface". United States Department of Transportation. Retrieved January 13, 2015.
Jump up ^ "China Expressway System to Exceed US Interstates". New Geography. Grand Forks, ND. January 22, 2011. Retrieved September 16, 2011.
Jump up ^ "China overtakes US in car sales". The Guardian. London. January 8, 2010. Retrieved July 10, 2011.
Jump up ^ "Motor vehicles statistics – countries compared worldwide". NationMaster. Retrieved July 10, 2011.
Jump up ^ "Household, Individual, and Vehicle Characteristics". 2001 National Household Travel Survey. U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Archived from the original on May 13, 2005. Retrieved August 15, 2007.
Jump up ^ "Daily Passenger Travel". 2001 National Household Travel Survey. U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Archived from the original on May 13, 2005. Retrieved August 15, 2007.
Jump up ^ Todorovich, Petra; Hagler, Yoav (January 2011). High Speed Rail in America (PDF) (Report). America 2050. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
Jump up ^ Renne, John L.; Wells, Jan S. (2003). "Emerging European-Style Planning in the United States: Transit-Oriented Development" (PDF). Rutgers University. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 12, 2014. Retrieved June 11, 2007.
Jump up ^ Benfield, Kaid (May 18, 2009). "NatGeo surveys countries' transit use: guess who comes in last". Natural Resources Defense Council. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
Jump up ^ "Intercity Passenger Rail: National Policy and Strategies Needed to Maximize Public Benefits from Federal Expenditures". U.S. Government Accountability Office. November 13, 2006. Retrieved June 20, 2007.
Jump up ^ "The Economist Explains: Why Americans Don't Ride Trains". The Economist. August 29, 2013. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
Jump up ^ "Amtrak Ridership Records". Amtrak. June 8, 2011. Retrieved February 29, 2012.
Jump up ^ McGill, Tracy (January 1, 2011). "3 Reasons Light Rail Is an Efficient Transportation Option for U.S. Cities". MetaEfficient. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
Jump up ^ McKenzie, Brian (May 2014). "Modes Less Traveled—Bicycling and Walking to Work in the United States: 2008–2012" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 13, 2014.
Jump up ^ "Privatization". downsizinggovernment.org. Cato Institute. Retrieved December 27, 2014.
Jump up ^ "Scheduled Passengers Carried". International Air Transport Association (IATA). 2011. Archived from the original on January 2, 2015. Retrieved February 17, 2012.
Jump up ^ "Preliminary World Airport Traffic and Rankings 2013 – High Growth Dubai Moves Up to 7th Busiest Airport – Mar 31, 2014". Airports Council International. March 31, 2014. Archived from the original on April 1, 2014. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
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technology technology from technology

Thursday, 14-09-17 13:07

Science and technology
Main articles: Science and technology in the United States and Science policy of the United States

Astronaut James Irwin walking on the Moon next to Apollo 15's landing module and lunar rover in 1971. The effort to reach the Moon was triggered by the Space Race.
The United States has been a leader in technological innovation since the late 19th century and scientific research since the mid-20th century. Methods for producing interchangeable parts were developed by the U.S. War Department by the Federal Armories during the first half of the 19th century. This technology, along with the establishment of a machine tool industry, enabled the U.S. to have large scale manufacturing of sewing machines, bicycles and other items in the late 19th century and became known as the American system of manufacturing. Factory electrification in the early 20th century and introduction of the assembly line and other labor saving techniques created the system called mass production.[648]

In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell was awarded the first U.S. patent for the telephone. Thomas Edison's research laboratory, one of the first of its kind, developed the phonograph, the first long-lasting light bulb, and the first viable movie camera.[649] The latter lead to emergence of the worldwide entertainment industry. In the early 20th century, the automobile companies of Ransom E. Olds and Henry Ford popularized the assembly line. The Wright brothers, in 1903, made the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight.[650]

The rise of Fascism and Nazism in the 1920s and 1930s led many European scientists, including Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi, and John von Neumann, to immigrate to the United States.[651] During World War II, the Manhattan Project developed nuclear weapons, ushering in the Atomic Age, while the Space Race produced rapid advances in rocketry, materials science, and aeronautics.[652][653]

The invention of the transistor in the 1950s, a key active component in practically all modern electronics, led to many technological developments and a significant expansion of the U.S. technology industry.[654][655][656] This in turn led to the establishment of many new technology companies and regions around the country such as in Silicon Valley in California. Advancements by American microprocessor companies such as Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), and Intel along with both computer software and hardware companies that include Adobe Systems, Apple Inc., IBM, Microsoft, and Sun Microsystems created and popularized the personal computer. The ARPANET was developed in the 1960s to meet Defense Department requirements, and became the first of a series of networks which evolved into the Internet.[657]

These advancements then lead to greater personalization of technology for individual use.[658] As of 2013, 83.8% of American households owned at least one computer, and 73.3% had high-speed Internet service.[659] 91% of Americans also own a mobile phone as of May 2013.[660] The United States ranks highly with regard to freedom of use of the internet.[661]

In the 21st century, approximately two-thirds of research and development funding comes from the private sector.[662] The United States leads the world in scientific research papers and impact factor.[663]

Health
See also: Health care in the United States, Health care reform in the United States, and Health insurance in the United States

New York-Presbyterian Hospital in New York City is one of the world's busiest hospitals. Pictured is the Weill Cornell facility (white complex at center).
The United States has a life expectancy of 79.8 years at birth, up from 75.2 years in 1990.[664][665][666] The infant mortality rate of 6.17 per thousand places the United States 56th-lowest out of 224 countries.[667]

Increasing obesity in the United States and health improvements elsewhere contributed to lowering the country's rank in life expectancy from 11th in the world in 1987, to 42nd in 2007.[668] Obesity rates have more than doubled in the last 30 years, are the highest in the industrialized world, and are among the highest anywhere.[669][670] Approximately one-third of the adult population is obese and an additional third is overweight.[671] Obesity-related type 2 diabetes is considered epidemic by health care professionals.[672]

In 2010, coronary artery disease, lung cancer, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and traffic accidents caused the most years of life lost in the U.S. Low back pain, depression, musculoskeletal disorders, neck pain, and anxiety caused the most years lost to disability. The most deleterious risk factors were poor diet, tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, physical inactivity, and alcohol use. Alzheimer's disease, drug abuse, kidney disease and cancer, and falls caused the most additional years of life lost over their age-adjusted 1990 per-capita rates.[666] U.S. teenage pregnancy and abortion rates are substantially higher than in other Western nations, especially among blacks and Hispanics.[673]

The U.S. is a global leader in medical innovation. America solely developed or contributed significantly to 9 of the top 10 most important medical innovations since 1975 as ranked by a 2001 poll of physicians, while the European Union and Switzerland together contributed to five.[674] Since 1966, more Americans have received the Nobel Prize in Medicine than the rest of the world combined. From 1989 to 2002, four times more money was invested in private biotechnology companies in America than in Europe.[675] The U.S. health-care system far outspends any other nation, measured in both per capita spending and percentage of GDP.[676]

Health-care coverage in the United States is a combination of public and private efforts and is not universal. In 2014, 13.4% of the population did not carry health insurance.[677] The subject of uninsured and underinsured Americans is a major political issue.[678][679] In 2006, Massachusetts became the first state to mandate universal health insurance.[680] Federal legislation passed in early 2010 would ostensibly create a near-universal health insurance system around the country by 2014, though the bill and its ultimate effect are issues of controversy.[681][682]

See also
flag United States portal
Book icon
Book: United States
Index of United States-related articles
Lists of U.S. state topics
Outline of the United States
Notes
Jump up ^ 36 U.S.C. § 302
Jump up ^ English is the official language of 32 states; English and Hawaiian are both official languages in Hawaii, and English and 20 Indigenous languages are official in Alaska. Algonquian, Cherokee, and Sioux are among many other official languages in Native-controlled lands throughout the country. French is a de facto, but unofficial, language in Maine and Louisiana, while New Mexico law grants Spanish a special status.[4][5]
Jump up ^ In five territories, English as well as one or more indigenous languages are official: Spanish in Puerto Rico, Samoan in American Samoa, Chamorro in both Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Carolinian is also an official language in the Northern Mariana Islands.
Jump up ^ See Time in the United States for details about laws governing time zones in the United States.
Jump up ^ Except American Samoa and the Virgin Islands.
Jump up ^ The five major territories are American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the United States Virgin Islands. There are eleven smaller island areas without permanent populations: Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, and Palmyra Atoll. U.S. sovereignty over Bajo Nuevo Bank, Navassa Island, Serranilla Bank, and Wake Island is disputed.[18]
Jump up ^ The Encyclopædia Britannica lists China as world's third-largest country (after Russia and Canada) with a total area of 9,572,900 sq km,[21] and the United States as fourth-largest at 9,526,468 sq km. The figure for the United States is less than in the CIA World Factbook because it excludes coastal and territorial waters.[22] The CIA World Factbook lists the United States as the third-largest country (after Russia and Canada) with total area of 9,833,517 sq km,[23] and China as fourth-largest at 9,596,960 sq km.[24] This figure for the United States is greater than in the Encyclopædia Britannica because it includes coastal and territorial waters.
Jump up ^ Spain sent several expeditions to Alaska to assert its long-held claim over the Pacific Northwest which dated back to the 16th century. During the decade 1785–1795 British merchants, encouraged by Sir Joseph Banks and supported by their government, made a sustained attempt to develop this trade despite Spain's claims and navigation rights. The endeavours of these merchants did not last long in the face of Spain's opposition. The challenge was also opposed by a Japan holding obdurately to national seclusion.[86]
Jump up ^ His previous arrival coincided with the Makahiki,[100] a festival celebrating the Hawaiian deity Lono.[101] After the HMS Resolution and HMS Discovery had left the islands, the season for battle and war had begun under the worship and rituals for K?ka?ilimoku, the Hawaiian deity of war.[102]
Jump up ^ On the evening of February 13, while anchored in Kealakekua Bay after their return, one of only two long boats was stolen.[103] The Hawaiians had begun to openly challenging the foreigners. In retaliation, Cook tried to take the ali?i nui of the island of Hawaii, Kalani??pu?u as ransom for the boats.[104] The following morning of February 14, 1779[105] Cook and his men went directly to Kalani??pu?u's enclosure where the monarch was still sleeping.[106] One of ruler's wives, K?nekap?lei pleaded with them to stop.[107] Cook's men and the Marines were confronted on the beach by thousands of Native Hawaiians.[108] Cook tried to move the elderly man but he refused. As the townspeople began to surrounding them, Cook and his men raised their guns. Two chiefs and the monarch's wife shielded Kalani??pu?u as Cook tried to force him to his feet.[109] The crowd became hostile and Kana?ina (one of the monarch's attendants) approached Cook, who reacted by striking him with the broad side of his sword. Kana?ina instantly grabbed Cook and lifted him off his feet.[110] Kana?ina released Cook, who fell to the ground as another attendant, Nuaa fatally stabbed Cook to death.[111]
Jump up ^ The United States has a very diverse population; 37 ancestry groups have more than one million members.[260] German Americans are the largest ethnic group (more than 50 million) – followed by Irish Americans (circa 37 million), Mexican Americans (circa 31 million) and English Americans (circa 28 million).[261][262] White Americans are the largest racial group; black Americans are the nation's largest racial minority (note that in the U.S. Census, Hispanic and Latino Americans are counted as an ethnic group, not a "racial" group), and third-largest ancestry group.[260] Asian Americans are the country's second-largest racial minority; the three largest Asian American ethnic groups are Chinese Americans, Filipino Americans, and Indian Americans.[260]
Jump up ^ Fertility is also a factor; in 2010 the average Hispanic woman gave birth to 2.35 children in her lifetime, compared to 1.97 for non-Hispanic black women and 1.79 for non-Hispanic white women (both below the replacement rate of 2.1).[279] Minorities (as defined by the Census Bureau as all those beside non-Hispanic, non-multiracial whites) constituted 36.3% of the population in 2010 (this is nearly 40% in 2015),[280] and over 50% of children under age one,[281] and are projected to constitute the majority by 2042.[282] This contradicts the report by the National Vital Statistics Reports, based on the U.S. census data, which concludes that 54% (2,162,406 out of 3,999,386 in 2010) of births were non-Hispanic white.[279] The Hispanic birth rate plummeted 25% between 2006 and 2013 while the rate for non-Hispanics decreased just 5%.[283]
Jump up ^ Source: 2015 American Community Survey, U.S. Census Bureau. Most respondents who speak a language other than English at home also report speaking English "well" or "very well" For the language groups listed above, the strongest English-language proficiency is among speakers of German (96% report that they speak English "well" or "very well"), followed by speakers of French (93.5%), Tagalog (92.8%), Spanish (74.1%), Korean (71.5%), Chinese (70.4%), and Vietnamese (66.9%).
Jump up ^ In January 2015, U.S. federal government debt held by the public was approximately $13 trillion, or about 72% of U.S. GDP. Intra-governmental holdings stood at $5 trillion, giving a combined total debt of $18.080 trillion.[409][410] By 2012, total federal debt had surpassed 100% of U.S. GDP.[411] The U.S. has a credit rating of AA+ from Standard & Poor's, AAA from Fitch, and AAA from Moody's.[412]
Jump up ^ The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, SIPRI, found that the United States' arms industry was the world's biggest exporter of major weapons from 2005 to 2009,[475] and remained the largest exporter of major weapons during a period between 2010 and 2014, followed by Russia, China (PRC), and Germany.[476]
Jump up ^ Droughts are likely to particularly affect the 66 percent of Americans whose communities depend on surface water.[554] As for drinking water quality, there are concerns about disinfection by-products, lead, perchlorates and pharmaceutical substances, but generally drinking water quality in the U.S. is good.[555]
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Jump up ^ Strauss, Lilo T.; et al. (November 24, 2006). "Abortion Surveillance—United States, 2003". MMWR. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health. Retrieved June 17, 2007.
Jump up ^ "FASTSTATS – Births and Natality". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. November 21, 2013. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
Jump up ^ Wetzstein, Cheryl (May 28, 2014). "U.S. fertility plummets to record low". The Washington Times. Retrieved August 20, 2014.
Jump up ^ Jardine, Cassandra (October 31, 2007). "Why adoption is so easy in America". The Daily Telegraph. London.
Jump up ^ "Child Adoption: Trends and policies" (PDF). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2009. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
Jump up ^ Hagerty, Barbara Bradley (May 27, 2008). "Some Muslims in U.S. Quietly Engage in Polygamy". National Public Radio: All Things Considered. Retrieved July 23, 2009.
Jump up ^ Scheb, John M.; Scheb, John M. II (2002). An Introduction to the American Legal System. Florence, KY: Delmar, p. 6. ISBN 0-7668-2759-3.
Jump up ^ Killian, Johnny H. "Constitution of the United States". The Office of the Secretary of the Senate. Retrieved February 11, 2012.
Jump up ^ Democracy Index 2016 (PDF) (Report). The Economist Intelligence Unit. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 2, 2017. Retrieved March 5, 2017.
Jump up ^ "Corruption Perceptions Index 2016". Transparency International. Retrieved March 5, 2017.
Jump up ^ Mikhail Filippov; Peter C. Ordeshook; Olga Shvetsova (February 9, 2004). Designing Federalism: A Theory of Self-Sustainable Federal Institutions. Cambridge University Press. p. 242. ISBN 978-0-521-01648-3.
Barbara Bardes; Mack Shelley; Steffen Schmidt (January 1, 2013). American Government and Politics Today: Essentials 2013–2014 Edition. Cengage Learning. pp. 265–266. ISBN 1-285-60571-3.
Jump up ^ "The Legislative Branch". United States Diplomatic Mission to Germany. Retrieved August 20, 2012.
Jump up ^ "The Process for impeachment". ThinkQuest. Retrieved August 20, 2012.
Jump up ^ "The Executive Branch". The White House. Retrieved February 11, 2017.
Jump up ^ Kermit L. Hall; Kevin T. McGuire (September 9, 2005). Institutions of American Democracy: The Judicial Branch. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-988374-5.
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (March 18, 2013). Learn about the United States: Quick Civics Lessons for the Naturalization Test. Government Printing Off

 

Science Science from Science

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Times Square in New York City, the hub of the Broadway theater district[609]
One of the first major promoters of American theater was impresario P. T. Barnum, who began operating a lower Manhattan entertainment complex in 1841. The team of Harrigan and Hart produced a series of popular musical comedies in New York starting in the late 1870s. In the 20th century, the modern musical form emerged on Broadway; the songs of musical theater composers such as Irving Berlin, Cole Porter, and Stephen Sondheim have become pop standards. Playwright Eugene O'Neill won the Nobel literature prize in 1936; other acclaimed U.S. dramatists include multiple Pulitzer Prize winners Tennessee Williams, Edward Albee, and August Wilson.[610]

Though little known at the time, Charles Ives's work of the 1910s established him as the first major U.S. composer in the classical tradition, while experimentalists such as Henry Cowell and John Cage created a distinctive American approach to classical composition. Aaron Copland and George Gershwin developed a new synthesis of popular and classical music.

Choreographers Isadora Duncan and Martha Graham helped create modern dance, while George Balanchine and Jerome Robbins were leaders in 20th-century ballet.

Music
Main article: Music of the United States

The Grammy Award is awarded to leading music artists.
The rhythmic and lyrical styles of African-American music have deeply influenced American music at large, distinguishing it from European traditions. Elements from folk idioms such as the blues and what is now known as old-time music were adopted and transformed into popular genres with global audiences. Jazz was developed by innovators such as Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington early in the 20th century. Country music developed in the 1920s, and rhythm and blues in the 1940s.[611]

Elvis Presley and Chuck Berry were among the mid-1950s pioneers of rock and roll. In the 1960s, Bob Dylan emerged from the folk revival to become one of America's most celebrated songwriters and James Brown led the development of funk. More recent American creations include hip hop and house music. American pop stars such as Presley, Michael Jackson, and Madonna have become global celebrities,[611] as have contemporary musical artists such as Taylor Swift, Britney Spears, Katy Perry, and Beyoncé as well as hip hop artists Jay-Z, Eminem and Kanye West.[612] Rock bands such as Metallica, the Eagles, and Aerosmith are among the highest grossing in worldwide sales.[613][614][615]

Cinema
Main article: Cinema of the United States

The Hollywood Sign in Los Angeles, California
Hollywood, a northern district of Los Angeles, California, is one of the leaders in motion picture production.[616] The world's first commercial motion picture exhibition was given in New York City in 1894, using Thomas Edison's Kinetoscope.[617] The next year saw the first commercial screening of a projected film, also in New York, and the United States was in the forefront of sound film's development in the following decades. Since the early 20th century, the U.S. film industry has largely been based in and around Hollywood, although in the 21st century an increasing number of films are not made there, and film companies have been subject to the forces of globalization.[618]

Director D. W. Griffith, the top American filmmaker during the silent film period, was central to the development of film grammar, and producer/entrepreneur Walt Disney was a leader in both animated film and movie merchandising.[619] Directors such as John Ford redefined the image of the American Old West and history, and, like others such as John Huston, broadened the possibilities of cinema with location shooting, with great influence on subsequent directors. The industry enjoyed its golden years, in what is commonly referred to as the "Golden Age of Hollywood", from the early sound period until the early 1960s,[620] with screen actors such as John Wayne and Marilyn Monroe becoming iconic figures.[621][622] In the 1970s, film directors such as Martin Scorsese, Francis Ford Coppola and Robert Altman were a vital component in what became known as "New Hollywood" or the "Hollywood Renaissance",[623] grittier films influenced by French and Italian realist pictures of the post-war period.[624] Since, directors such as Steven Spielberg, George Lucas and James Cameron have gained renown for their blockbuster films, often characterized by high production costs, and in return, high earnings at the box office, with Cameron's Avatar (2009) earning more than $2 billion.[625]

Notable films topping the American Film Institute's AFI 100 list include Orson Welles's Citizen Kane (1941), which is frequently cited as the greatest film of all time,[626][627] Casablanca (1942), The Godfather (1972), Gone with the Wind (1939), Lawrence of Arabia (1962), The Wizard of Oz (1939), The Graduate (1967), On the Waterfront (1954), Schindler's List (1993), Singin' in the Rain (1952), It's a Wonderful Life (1946) and Sunset Boulevard (1950).[628] The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, have been held annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences since 1929,[629] and the Golden Globe Awards have been held annually since January 1944.[630]

Sports
Main article: Sports in the United States




Most popular American sports are American football, baseball, basketball and ice hockey[631]
American football is by several measures the most popular spectator sport;[632] the National Football League (NFL) has the highest average attendance of any sports league in the world, and the Super Bowl is watched by millions globally. Baseball has been regarded as the U.S. national sport since the late 19th century, with Major League Baseball (MLB) being the top league. Basketball and ice hockey are the country's next two leading professional team sports, with the top leagues being the National Basketball Association (NBA) and the National Hockey League (NHL). These four major sports, when played professionally, each occupy a season at different, but overlapping, times of the year. College football and basketball attract large audiences.[633] In soccer, the country hosted the 1994 FIFA World Cup, the men's national soccer team qualified for ten World Cups and the women's team has won the FIFA Women's World Cup three times; Major League Soccer is the sport's highest league in the United States (featuring 19 American and 3 Canadian teams). The market for professional sports in the United States is roughly $69 billion, roughly 50% larger than that of all of Europe, the Middle East, and Africa combined.[634]

Eight Olympic Games have taken place in the United States. As of 2014, the United States has won 2,400 medals at the Summer Olympic Games, more than any other country, and 281 in the Winter Olympic Games, the second most behind Norway.[635] While most major U.S. sports have evolved out of European practices, basketball, volleyball, skateboarding, and snowboarding are American inventions, some of which have become popular in other countries. Lacrosse and surfing arose from Native American and Native Hawaiian activities that predate Western contact.[636] The most watched individual sports are golf and auto racing, particularly NASCAR.[637][638] Rugby union is considered the fastest growing sport in the U.S., with registered players numbered at 115,000+ and a further 1.2 million participants.[639]

Media
Main article: Media of the United States

The corporate headquarters of the American Broadcasting Company in New York City
The four major broadcasters in the U.S. are the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), and Fox. The four major broadcast television networks are all commercial entities. Cable television offers hundreds of channels catering to a variety of niches.[640] Americans listen to radio programming, also largely commercial, on average just over two-and-a-half hours a day.[641]

In 1998, the number of U.S. commercial radio stations had grown to 4,793 AM stations and 5,662 FM stations. In addition, there are 1,460 public radio stations. Most of these stations are run by universities and public authorities for educational purposes and are financed by public or private funds, subscriptions and corporate underwriting. Much public-radio broadcasting is supplied by NPR (formerly National Public Radio). NPR was incorporated in February 1970 under the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967; its television counterpart, PBS, was also created by the same legislation. (NPR and PBS are operated separately from each other.) As of September 30, 2014, there are 15,433 licensed full-power radio stations in the U.S. according to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC).[642]

Well-known newspapers include The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times and USA Today.[643] Although the cost of publishing has increased over the years, the price of newspapers has generally remained low, forcing newspapers to rely more on advertising revenue and on articles provided by a major wire service, such as the Associated Press or Reuters, for their national and world coverage. With very few exceptions, all the newspapers in the U.S. are privately owned, either by large chains such as Gannett or McClatchy, which own dozens or even hundreds of newspapers; by small chains that own a handful of papers; or in a situation that is increasingly rare, by individuals or families. Major cities often have "alternative weeklies" to complement the mainstream daily papers, for example, New York City's The Village Voice or Los Angeles' LA Weekly, to name two of the best-known. Major cities may also support a local business journal, trade papers relating to local industries, and papers for local ethnic and social groups. Early versions of the American newspaper comic strip and the American comic book began appearing in the 19th century. In 1938, Superman, the comic book superhero of DC Comics, developed into an American icon.[644] Aside from web portals and search engines, the most popular websites are Facebook, YouTube, Wikipedia, Yahoo!, eBay, Amazon, and Twitter.[645]

More than 800 publications are produced in Spanish, the second most commonly used language in the United States behind English.[646][647]

 

Origin Origin from Origin

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There were about 578,424 sheltered and unsheltered homeless persons in the U.S. in January 2014, with almost two-thirds staying in an emergency shelter or transitional housing program.[525] In 2011 16.7 million children lived in food-insecure households, about 35% more than 2007 levels, though only 1.1% of U.S. children, or 845,000, saw reduced food intake or disrupted eating patterns at some point during the year, and most cases were not chronic.[526] According to a 2014 report by the Census Bureau, one in five young adults lives in poverty today, up from one in seven in 1980.[527]
Infrastructure
Transportation
Main article: Transportation in the United States
The Interstate Highway System, which extends 46,876 miles (75,440 km).[528]
Personal transportation is dominated by automobiles, which operate on a network of 4 million miles (6.4 million km) of public roads,[529] including one of the world's longest highway systems at 57,000 miles (91700 km).[530] The world's second-largest automobile market,[531] the United States has the highest rate of per-capita vehicle ownership in the world, with 765 vehicles per 1,000 Americans.[532] About 40% of personal vehicles are vans, SUVs, or light trucks.[533] The average American adult (accounting for all drivers and non-drivers) spends 55 minutes driving every day, traveling 29 miles (47 km).[534]
Map showing current rail speeds in the United States.[535]
Mass transit accounts for 9% of total U.S. work trips.[536][537] Transport of goods by rail is extensive, though relatively low numbers of passengers (approximately 31 million annually) use intercity rail to travel, partly because of the low population density throughout much of the U.S. interior.[538][539] However, ridership on Amtrak, the national intercity passenger rail system, grew by almost 37% between 2000 and 2010.[540] Also, light rail development has increased in recent years.[541] Bicycle usage for work commutes is minimal.[542]
The civil airline industry is entirely privately owned and has been largely deregulated since 1978, while most major airports are publicly owned.[543] The three largest airlines in the world by passengers carried are U.S.-based; American Airlines is number one after its 2013 acquisition by US Airways.[544] Of the world's 50 busiest passenger airports, 16 are in the United States, including the busiest, Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport, and the fourth-busiest, O'Hare International Airport in Chicago.[545] In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks of 2001, the Transportation Security Administration was created to police airports and commercial airliners.
Energy
Further information: Energy policy of the United States
The U.S. power transmission grid consists of about 300,000 km (190,000 mi) of lines operated by approximately 500 companies. The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) oversees all of them.
The United States energy market is about 29,000 terawatt hours per year.[546] Energy consumption per capita is 7.8 tons (7076 kg) of oil equivalent per year, the 10th-highest rate in the world. In 2005, 40% of this energy came from petroleum, 23% from coal, and 22% from natural gas. The remainder was supplied by nuclear power and renewable energy sources.[547] The United States is the world's largest consumer of petroleum.[548]
For decades, nuclear power has played a limited role relative to many other developed countries, in part because of public perception in the wake of a 1979 accident. In 2007, several applications for new nuclear plants were filed.[549] The United States has 27% of global coal reserves.[550] It is the world's largest producer of natural gas and crude oil.[551]
Water supply and sanitation
Main article: Drinking water supply and sanitation in the United States
Issues that affect water supply in the United States include droughts in the West, water scarcity, pollution, a backlog of investment, concerns about the affordability of water for the poorest, and a rapidly retiring workforce. Increased variability and intensity of rainfall as a result of climate change is expected to produce both more severe droughts and flooding, with potentially serious consequences for water supply and for pollution from combined sewer overflows.[552][553][fn 16]
Education
Main article: Education in the United States
The University of Virginia, founded by Thomas Jefferson in 1819, is one of the many public universities in the United States. Universal government-funded education exists in the United States, while there are also many privately funded institutions.
American public education is operated by state and local governments, regulated by the United States Department of Education through restrictions on federal grants. In most states, children are required to attend school from the age of six or seven (generally, kindergarten or first grade) until they turn 18 (generally bringing them through twelfth grade, the end of high school); some states allow students to leave school at 16 or 17.[556]
About 12% of children are enrolled in parochial or nonsectarian private schools. Just over 2% of children are homeschooled.[557] The U.S. spends more on education per student than any nation in the world, spending more than $11,000 per elementary student in 2010 and more than $12,000 per high school student.[558] Some 80% of U.S. college students attend public universities.[559]
The United States has many competitive private and public institutions of higher education. The majority of the world's top universities listed by different ranking organizations are in the U.S.[560][561][562] There are also local community colleges with generally more open admission policies, shorter academic programs, and lower tuition. Of Americans 25 and older, 84.6% graduated from high school, 52.6% attended some college, 27.2% earned a bachelor's degree, and 9.6% earned graduate degrees.[563] The basic literacy rate is approximately 99%.[222][564] The United Nations assigns the United States an Education Index of 0.97, tying it for 12th in the world.[565]
As for public expenditures on higher education, the U.S. trails some other OECD nations but spends more per student than the OECD average, and more than all nations in combined public and private spending.[558][566] As of 2012, student loan debt exceeded one trillion dollars, more than Americans owe on credit cards.[567]
Culture
Main article: Culture of the United States
See also: Alaska Natives § Cultures, Native American cultures in the United States, Culture of the Native Hawaiians, Social class in the United States, Public holidays in the United States, and Tourism in the United States
The United States is home to many cultures and a wide variety of ethnic groups, traditions, and values.[568][569] Aside from the Native American, Native Hawaiian, and Native Alaskan populations, nearly all Americans or their ancestors settled or immigrated within the past five centuries.[570] Mainstream American culture is a Western culture largely derived from the traditions of European immigrants with influences from many other sources, such as traditions brought by slaves from Africa.[568][571] More recent immigration from Asia and especially Latin America has added to a cultural mix that has been described as both a homogenizing melting pot, and a heterogeneous salad bowl in which immigrants and their descendants retain distinctive cultural characteristics.[568]
Core American culture was established by Protestant British colonists and shaped by the frontier settlement process, with the traits derived passed down to descendants and transmitted to immigrants through assimilation. Americans have traditionally been characterized by a strong work ethic, competitiveness, and individualism,[572] as well as a unifying belief in an "American creed" emphasizing liberty, equality, private property, democracy, rule of law, and a preference for limited government.[573] Americans are extremely charitable by global standards. According to a 2006 British study, Americans gave 1.67% of GDP to charity, more than any other nation studied, more than twice the second place British figure of 0.73%, and around twelve times the French figure of 0.14%.[574][575]
The American Dream, or the perception that Americans enjoy high social mobility, plays a key role in attracting immigrants.[576] Whether this perception is realistic has been a topic of debate.[577][578][579][580][466][581] While mainstream culture holds that the United States is a classless society,[582] scholars identify significant differences between the country's social classes, affecting socialization, language, and values.[583] Americans' self-images, social viewpoints, and cultural expectations are associated with their occupations to an unusually close degree.[584] While Americans tend greatly to value socioeconomic achievement, being ordinary or average is generally seen as a positive attribute.[585]
Food
Main article: Cuisine of the United States
Apple pie is a food commonly associated with American cuisine.
Mainstream American cuisine is similar to that in other Western countries. Wheat is the primary cereal grain with about three-quarters of grain products made of wheat flour[586] and many dishes use indigenous ingredients, such as turkey, venison, potatoes, sweet potatoes, corn, squash, and maple syrup which were consumed by Native Americans and early European settlers.[587] These home grown foods are part of a shared national menu on one of America's most popular holidays; Thanksgiving, when some Americans make traditional foods to celebrate the occasion.[588]
Roasted turkey is a traditional menu item of an American Thanksgiving dinner.[589]
Characteristic dishes such as apple pie, fried chicken, pizza, hamburgers, and hot dogs derive from the recipes of various immigrants. French fries, Mexican dishes such as burritos and tacos, and pasta dishes freely adapted from Italian sources are widely consumed.[590] Americans drink three times as much coffee as tea.[591] Marketing by U.S. industries is largely responsible for making orange juice and milk ubiquitous breakfast beverages.[592][593]
American eating habits owe a great deal to that of their British culinary roots with some variations. Although American lands could grow newer vegetables that Britain could not, most colonists would not eat these new foods until accepted by Europeans.[594] Over time American foods changed to a point that food critic, John L. Hess stated in 1972: "Our founding fathers were as far superior to our present political leaders in the quality of their food as they were in the quality of their prose and intelligence".[595]
The American fast food industry, the world's largest,[596] pioneered the drive-through format in the 1940s.[597] Fast food consumption has sparked health concerns. During the 1980s and 1990s, Americans' caloric intake rose 24%;[590] frequent dining at fast food outlets is associated with what public health officials call the American "obesity epidemic".[598] Highly sweetened soft drinks are widely popular, and sugared beverages account for nine percent of American caloric intake.[599]
Literature, philosophy, and the arts
Main articles: American literature, American philosophy, Architecture of the United States, Visual art of the United States, and American classical music
Mark Twain, American author and humorist.
In the 18th and early 19th centuries, American art and literature took most of its cues from Europe. Writers such as Nathaniel Hawthorne, Edgar Allan Poe, and Henry David Thoreau established a distinctive American literary voice by the middle of the 19th century. Mark Twain and poet Walt Whitman were major figures in the century's second half; Emily Dickinson, virtually unknown during her lifetime, is now recognized as an essential American poet.[600] A work seen as capturing fundamental aspects of the national experience and character—such as Herman Melville's Moby-Dick (1851), Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885), F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby (1925) and Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird (1960)—may be dubbed the "Great American Novel".[601]
Twelve U.S. citizens have won the Nobel Prize in Literature, most recently Bob Dylan in 2016. William Faulkner, Ernest Hemingway and John Steinbeck are often named among the most influential writers of the 20th century.[602] Popular literary genres such as the Western and hardboiled crime fiction developed in the United States. The Beat Generation writers opened up new literary approaches, as have postmodernist authors such as John Barth, Thomas Pynchon, and Don DeLillo.[603]
The transcendentalists, led by Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson, established the first major American philosophical movement. After the Civil War, Charles Sanders Peirce and then William James and John Dewey were leaders in the development of pragmatism. In the 20th century, the work of W. V. O. Quine and Richard Rorty, and later Noam Chomsky, brought analytic philosophy to the fore of American philosophical academia. John Rawls and Robert Nozick led a revival of political philosophy. Cornel West and Judith Butler have led a continental tradition in American philosophical academia. Chicago school economists like Milton Friedman, James M. Buchanan, and Thomas Sowell have affected various fields in social and political philosophy.[604][605]
In the visual arts, the Hudson River School was a mid-19th-century movement in the tradition of European naturalism. The realist paintings of Thomas Eakins are now widely celebrated. The 1913 Armory Show in New York City, an exhibition of European modernist art, shocked the public and transformed the U.S. art scene.[606] Georgia O'Keeffe, Marsden Hartley, and others experimented with new, individualistic styles. Major artistic movements such as the abstract expressionism of Jackson Pollock and Willem de Kooning and the pop art of Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein developed largely in the United States. The tide of modernism and then postmodernism has brought fame to American architects such as Frank Lloyd Wright, Philip Johnson, and Frank Gehry.[607] Americans have long been important in the modern artistic medium of photography, with major photographers including Alfred Stieglitz, Edward Steichen, and Ansel Adams.[608]

 

The Unitted States The Unitted States from The Unitted States

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US global military presence.
The proposed base Department of Defense budget for 2012, $553 billion, was a 4.2% increase over 2011; an additional $118 billion was proposed for the military campaigns in Iraq and Afghanistan.[420] The last American troops serving in Iraq departed in December 2011;[421] 4,484 service members were killed during the Iraq War.[422] Approximately 90,000 U.S. troops were serving in Afghanistan in April 2012;[423] by November 8, 2013 2,285 had been killed during the War in Afghanistan.[424]
Law enforcement and crime
Main articles: Law enforcement in the United States and Crime in the United States
See also: Law of the United States, Second Amendment to the United States Constitution, Human rights in the United States § Justice system, Incarceration in the United States, and Capital punishment in the United States
Law enforcement in the U.S. is maintained primarily by local police departments.[425]
Law enforcement in the United States is primarily the responsibility of local police and sheriff's departments, with state police providing broader services. The New York City Police Department (NYPD) is the largest in the country. Federal agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the U.S. Marshals Service have specialized duties, including protecting civil rights, national security and enforcing U.S. federal courts' rulings and federal laws.[426] At the federal level and in almost every state, a legal system operates on a common law. State courts conduct most criminal trials; federal courts handle certain designated crimes as well as certain appeals from the state criminal courts. Plea bargaining in the United States is very common; the vast majority of criminal cases in the country are settled by plea bargain rather than jury trial.[427]
In 2015, there were 15,696 murders which was 1,532 more than in 2014, a 10.8 per cent increase, the largest since 1971.[428] The murder rate in 2015 was 4.9 per 100,000 people.[429] The national clearance rate for homicides in 2015 was 64.1%, compared to 90% in 1965.[430] In 2012 there were 4.7 murders per 100,000 persons in the United States, a 54% decline from the modern peak of 10.2 in 1980.[431] In 2001–2, the United States had above-average levels of violent crime and particularly high levels of gun violence compared to other developed nations.[432] A cross-sectional analysis of the World Health Organization Mortality Database from 2010 showed that United States "homicide rates were 7.0 times higher than in other high-income countries, driven by a gun homicide rate that was 25.2 times higher."[433] Gun ownership rights continue to be the subject of contentious political debate.
From 1980 through 2008 males represented 77% of homicide victims and 90% of offenders. Blacks committed 52.5% of all homicides during that span, at a rate almost eight times that of whites ("whites" includes most Hispanics), and were victimized at a rate six times that of whites. Most homicides were intraracial, with 93% of black victims killed by blacks and 84% of white victims killed by whites.[434] In 2012, Louisiana had the highest rate of murder and non-negligent manslaughter in the U.S., and New Hampshire the lowest.[435] The FBI's Uniform Crime Reports estimates that there were 3,246 violent and property crimes per 100,000 residents in 2012, for a total of over 9 million total crimes.[436]
Capital punishment is sanctioned in the United States for certain federal and military crimes, and used in 31 states.[437][438] No executions took place from 1967 to 1977, owing in part to a U.S. Supreme Court ruling striking down arbitrary imposition of the death penalty. In 1976, that Court ruled that, under appropriate circumstances, capital punishment may constitutionally be imposed. Since the decision there have been more than 1,300 executions, a majority of these taking place in three states: Texas, Virginia, and Oklahoma.[439] Meanwhile, several states have either abolished or struck down death penalty laws. In 2015, the country had the fifth-highest number of executions in the world, following China, Iran, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia.[440]
The United States has the highest documented incarceration rate and total prison population in the world.[441] At the start of 2008, more than 2.3 million people were incarcerated, more than one in every 100 adults.[442] In December 2012, the combined U.S. adult correctional systems supervised about 6,937,600 offenders. About 1 in every 35 adult residents in the United States was under some form of correctional supervision in December 2012, the lowest rate observed since 1997.[443] The prison population has quadrupled since 1980,[444] and state and local spending on prisons and jails has grown three times as much as that spent on public education during the same period.[445] However, the imprisonment rate for all prisoners sentenced to more than a year in state or federal facilities is 478 per 100,000 in 2013[446] and the rate for pre-trial/remand prisoners is 153 per 100,000 residents in 2012.[447] The country's high rate of incarceration is largely due to changes in sentencing guidelines and drug policies.[448] According to the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the majority of inmates held in federal prisons are convicted of drug offenses.[449] The privatization of prisons and prison services which began in the 1980s has been a subject of debate.[450][451] In 2008, Louisiana had the highest incarceration rate,[452] and Maine the lowest.[453]
Economy
Main article: Economy of the United States
See also: Economic history of the United States
Economic indicators
Nominal GDP $18.45 trillion (Q2 2016) [454]
Real GDP growth 1.4% (Q2 2016) [454]
2.6% (2015) [455]
CPI inflation 1.1% (August 2016) [456]
Employment-to-population ratio 59.7% (August 2016) [457]
Unemployment 4.9% (August 2016) [458]
Labor force participation rate 62.8% (August 2016) [459]
Total public debt $19.808 trillion (October 25, 2016) [460]
Household net worth $89.063 trillion (Q2 2016) [461]
United States export treemap (2011): The U.S. is the world's second-largest exporter.
The United States has a capitalist mixed economy[462] which is fueled by abundant natural resources and high productivity.[463] According to the International Monetary Fund, the U.S. GDP of $16.8 trillion constitutes 24% of the gross world product at market exchange rates and over 19% of the gross world product at purchasing power parity (PPP).[464]
The US's nominal GDP is estimated to be $17.528 trillion as of 2014[465] From 1983 to 2008, U.S. real compounded annual GDP growth was 3.3%, compared to a 2.3% weighted average for the rest of the G7.[466] The country ranks ninth in the world in nominal GDP per capita and sixth in GDP per capita at PPP.[464] The U.S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency.[467]
The United States is the largest importer of goods and second-largest exporter, though exports per capita are relatively low. In 2010, the total U.S. trade deficit was $635 billion.[468] Canada, China, Mexico, Japan, and Germany are its top trading partners.[469] In 2010, oil was the largest import commodity, while transportation equipment was the country's largest export.[468] Japan is the largest foreign holder of U.S. public debt.[470] The largest holder of the U.S. debt are American entities, including federal government accounts and the Federal Reserve, who hold the majority of the debt.[471][472][473][474][fn 15]
In 2009, the private sector was estimated to constitute 86.4% of the economy, with federal government activity accounting for 4.3% and state and local government activity (including federal transfers) the remaining 9.3%.[477] The number of employees at all levels of government outnumber those in manufacturing by 1.7 to 1.[478] While its economy has reached a postindustrial level of development and its service sector constitutes 67.8% of GDP, the United States remains an industrial power.[479] The leading business field by gross business receipts is wholesale and retail trade; by net income it is manufacturing.[480] In the franchising business model, McDonald's and Subway are the two most recognized brands in the world. Coca-Cola is the most recognized soft drink company in the world.[481]
Chemical products are the leading manufacturing field.[482] The United States is the largest producer of oil in the world, as well as its second-largest importer.[483] It is the world's number one producer of electrical and nuclear energy, as well as liquid natural gas, sulfur, phosphates, and salt. The National Mining Association provides data pertaining to coal and minerals that include beryllium, copper, lead, magnesium, zinc, titanium and others.[484][485]
Agriculture accounts for just under 1% of GDP,[479] yet the United States is the world's top producer of corn[486] and soybeans.[487] The National Agricultural Statistics Service maintains agricultural statistics for products that include peanuts, oats, rye, wheat, rice, cotton, corn, barley, hay, sunflowers, and oilseeds. In addition, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) provides livestock statistics regarding beef, poultry, pork, and dairy products. The country is the primary developer and grower of genetically modified food, representing half of the world's biotech crops.[488]
Consumer spending comprises 68% of the U.S. economy in 2015.[489] In August 2010, the American labor force consisted of 154.1 million people. With 21.2 million people, government is the leading field of employment. The largest private employment sector is health care and social assistance, with 16.4 million people. About 12% of workers are unionized, compared to 30% in Western Europe.[490] The World Bank ranks the United States first in the ease of hiring and firing workers.[491] The United States is ranked among the top three in the Global Competitiveness Report as well. It has a smaller welfare state and redistributes less income through government action than European nations tend to.[492]
The United States is the only advanced economy that does not guarantee its workers paid vacation[493] and is one of just a few countries in the world without paid family leave as a legal right, with the others being Papua New Guinea, Suriname and Liberia.[494] While federal law currently does not require sick leave, it is a common benefit for government workers and full-time employees at corporations.[495] 74% of full-time American workers get paid sick leave, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, although only 24% of part-time workers get the same benefits.[495] In 2009, the United States had the third-highest workforce productivity per person in the world, behind Luxembourg and Norway. It was fourth in productivity per hour, behind those two countries and the Netherlands.[496]
The 2008–2012 global recession significantly affected the United States, with output still below potential according to the Congressional Budget Office.[497] It brought high unemployment (which has been decreasing but remains above pre-recession levels), along with low consumer confidence, the continuing decline in home values and increase in foreclosures and personal bankruptcies, an escalating federal debt crisis, inflation, and rising petroleum and food prices. There remains a record proportion of long-term unemployed, continued decreasing household income, and tax and federal budget increases.[498][499][500]
Income, poverty and wealth
A tract housing development in San Jose, California.
Further information: Income in the United States, Poverty in the United States, Affluence in the United States, United States counties by per capita income, and Income inequality in the United States
Americans have the highest average household and employee income among OECD nations, and in 2007 had the second-highest median household income.[501][502][503] According to the Census Bureau, median household income was $59,039 in 2016. [504] Despite accounting for only 4.4% of the global population, Americans collectively possess 41.6% of the world's total wealth,[505] and Americans make up roughly half of the world's population of millionaires.[506] The Global Food Security Index ranked the U.S. number one for food affordability and overall food security in March 2013.[507] Americans on average have over twice as much living space per dwelling and per person as European Union residents, and more than every EU nation.[508] For 2013 the United Nations Development Programme ranked the United States 5th among 187 countries in its Human Development Index and 28th in its inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI).[509]
After years of stagnant growth, in 2016, according to the Census, median household income reached a record high after two consecutive years of record growth. [510] There has been a widening gap between productivity and median incomes since the 1970s.[511] However, the gap between total compensation and productivity is not as wide because of increased employee benefits such as health insurance.[512] The rise in the share of total annual income received by the top 1 percent, which has more than doubled from 9 percent in 1976 to 20 percent in 2011, has significantly affected income inequality,[513] leaving the United States with one of the widest income distributions among OECD nations.[514] The post-recession income gains have been very uneven, with the top 1 percent capturing 95 percent of the income gains from 2009 to 2012.[515] The extent and relevance of income inequality is a matter of debate.[516][disputed – discuss][517]
United States' families median net worth
source: Fed Survey of Consumer Finances[518]
in 2013 dollars 1998 2013 change
All families $102,500 $81,200 -20.8%
Bottom 20% of incomes $8,300 $6,100 -26.5%
2nd lowest 20% of incomes $47,400 $22,400 -52.7%
Middle 20% of incomes $76,300 $61,700 -19.1%
Top 10% $646,600 $1,130,700 +74.9%
Wealth, like income and taxes, is highly concentrated; the richest 10% of the adult population possess 72% of the country's household wealth, while the bottom half claim only 2%.[519] Between June 2007 and November 2008 the global recession led to falling asset prices around the world. Assets owned by Americans lost about a quarter of their value.[520] Since peaking in the second quarter of 2007, household wealth was down $14 trillion, but has since increased $14 trillion over 2006 levels.[521][522] At the end of 2014, household debt amounted to $11.8 trillion,[523] down from $13.8 trillion at the end of 2008.[524]

 

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The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America (/??m?r?k?/), is a federal republic[16][17] composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.[fn 6] Forty-eight states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.[19]

At 3.8 million square miles (9.8 million km2)[20] and with over 324 million people, the United States is the world's third- or fourth-largest country by total area,[fn 7] and the third-most populous. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city is New York City; nine other major metropolitan areas—each with at least 4.5 million inhabitants—are Los Angeles, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Philadelphia, Miami, Atlanta, Boston, and San Francisco.

Paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago.[25] European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the Seven Years' War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775. On July 4, 1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the colonies unanimously adopted the Declaration of Independence. The war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.[26] The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, adopted in 1781, were felt to have provided inadequate federal powers. The first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties.

The United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century,[27] displacing Native American tribes, acquiring new territories, and gradually admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848.[27] During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of legal slavery in the country.[28][29] By the end of that century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean,[30] and its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar.[31] The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power. The United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower.[32] The U.S. is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States (OAS), and other international organizations.

The United States is a highly developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, totaling approximately a quarter of global GDP.[33] The U.S. economy is largely post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world.[34] Though its population is only 4.3% of the world total,[35] Americans hold 33.2% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country.[36] The United States ranks among the highest nations in several measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage,[37] human development, per capita GDP, and productivity per person.[38] The U.S. is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending.[39]

 

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